Unit 1 Aland of diversity 第一单元 一个多元文化的国土
California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. It also has the distinction of being the most multicultural state in the USA, having attracted people from all over the world. The customs and languages of the immigrants live on in their new home. This diversity of culture is not surprising when you know the history of California. NATIVE AMERCANS
Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. However, it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago. Scientists believe that these settlers crossed the Bering Strait in the Arctic to America by means of a land bridge which existed in prehistoric times. In the 16th century, after the arrival of the Europeans, the native people suffered greatly. Thousands were killed or forced into slavery. In addition, many died from the diseases brought by the Europeans. However, some survived these terrible times, and today there are more Native Americans living in California than in any other state.
In the 18th century California was ruled by Spain. Spanish soldiers first arrived in South America in the early 16th century, when they fought against the native people and took their land. Two centuries later, the Spanish had settled in most parts of South America and along the northwest coast of what we now call the United States. Of the first Spanish to go to California, the majority were religious men, whose ministry was to teach the Catholic religion to the natives. In 1821, the people of Mexico gained their independence from Spain. California then became part of Mexico. In 1846 the United States declared war on Mexico, and after the war won by the USA, Mexico had to give California to the USA. However, there is still a strong Spanish influence in the state. That is why today over 40 of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language. RUSSIANS
In the early 1800s, Russian hunters, who had originally gone to Alaska, began settling in California. Today there are about 25,000 Russian-Americans living in and around San Francisco.
In 1848, not long after the American-Mexican war, gold was discovered in California. The dream of becoming rich quickly attracted people from all over the world. The nearest, and therefore the first to arrive, were South Americans and people from the United States. Then adventurers from Europe and Asia soon followed. In fact, few achieved their dream of becoming rich. Some died or returned home, but most remained in California to make a life for themselves despite great hardship. They settled in the new towns or on farms. By the time California elected to become the thirty-first federal state of the USA in 1850, it was already a multicultural society.
LATER A RRIVALS
Although Chinese immigrants began to arrive during the Gold Rush Period, it was the building of the rail network from the west to the east coast that brought even larger numbers to California in the 1860s. Today, Chinese-Americans live in all parts of California, although a large percentage have chosen to stay in the "Chinatowns" of Los Angeles and San Francisco. Other immigrants such as Italians, mainly fishermen but also wine makers, arrived in California in the late 19th century. In 1911 immigrants from Denmark established a town of their own, which today still keeps up their Danish culture. By the 1920s the film industry was well established in Hollywood, California. The industry boom attracted Europeans including many Jewish people. Today California has the second largest Jewish population in the United States.Japanese farmers began arriving in California at the beginning of the 20th century, and since the 1980s a lot more have settled there. People from Africa have been living in California since the 1800s, when they moved north from Mexico. However, even more arrived between 1942 and 1945 to work in the ship and aircraft industries.
MOST RECENT ARRIVALS
In more recent decades, California has become home to more people from Asia, including Koreans, Cambodians, Vietnamese and Laotians. Since its beginning in the 1970s, the computer industry has attracted Indians and Pakistanis to
People from different parts of the world, attracted by the climate and the lifestyle, still immigrate to California. It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures.
19世纪后期，其他国家的移民，比如意大利人来到了加利福尼亚，他们主要是渔民，也有制酒工人。1911年，丹麦的移民建立了自己的城镇，至今仍然保留着丹麦文化。 20世纪20年代，电影业在加州的好莱坞建立了起来。这个行业吸引了大量的欧洲人，包括许多犹太人。今天，加利福尼亚的犹太人口在美国占第二位。日本农民是在20世纪初期开始到加利福尼亚来的，而从20世纪80年代以来就有更多的日本人在加利福尼亚定居了。非洲人从1 9世纪就在加利福尼亚住下来，他们是从墨西哥向北迁来的。然而，更多的非洲人是在1942年至1945年期间来到加利福尼亚的，当时他们是到船厂和飞机厂工作。
世界各地的人，由于受到气候条件和生活方式的吸引，仍然在继续迁入加利福尼亚。人们认为，要不了多久，多种国籍的混合将会非常之大，以致不可能存在一种主要的种族或文化群体，而是多种族、多文化的混合体。 Using Language
Reading and writing
GEORGE’S DIARY 12TH—14TH JUNE
Monday 12th, June
Arrived early this morning by bus. Went straight to hotel to drop my luggage, shower and shave. Then went exploring. First thing was a ride on a cable car. From top of the hill got a spectacular view of San Francisco Bay and the city. Built in 1873, the cable car system was invented by Andrew Hallidie, who wanted to find a better form of transport than horse-drawn trams. Apparently he'd been shocked when he saw a terrible accident in which a tram's brakes failed, the conductor could not control the situation and the tram slipped down the hill dragging the horses with it.
Had a late lunch at Fisherman's What. This is the district where Italian fishermen first came to San Francisco in the late 19th century and began the fishing industry. Now it's a tourist area with lots of shops, sea food restaurants and bakeries. It's also the place to catch the ferry to Angel Island and other places in the Bay.
Did so much exploring at Fisherman's What. Am exhausted and don't feel like doing anything else. Early bed tonight! Tuesday 13th, June
Teamed up with a couple from my hotel (Peter and Terri) and hired a car. Spent all day driving around the city. There's a fascinating drive marked out for tourists. It has blue and white signs with seagulls on them to show the way to go. It's a 79km round-trip that takes in all the famous tourist spots. Stopped many times to admire the view of the city from different angles and take photographs. Now have a really good idea of what the city's like.
In evening, went to Chinatown with Peter and Terri. Chinese immigrants settled in this area in the 1850s. The fronts of the buildings are decorated to look like old buildings in southern China. Saw some interesting temples here, a number of markets and a great many restaurants. Also art galleries and a museum containing documents, photographs and all sorts of objects about the history of Chinese immigration, but it is closed in the evening. Will go back during the day. Had a delicious meal and then walked down the hill to our hotel.
Wednesday 14th, June
In morning, took ferry to Angel Island from the port in San Francisco Bay. On the way had a good view of the Golden Gate Bridge. From 1882 to 1940 Angel Island was a famous immigration station where many Chinese people applied for right to live in USA. The cells in the station were very small, cold and damp; some did not even have light but the immigrants had nowhere else to go. Their miserable stay seemed to be punishment rather than justice and freedom to them. They wrote poems on the walls about their loneliness and mourned their former life in China. In 1940 the civil authorities reformed the system so that many more Chinese people were able to grasp the opportunity of settling in the USA. Made me very thoughtful and thankful for my life today.
Unit 2 Cloning 第二单元 克隆
CLONING: WHERE IS IT LEADING US?
Cloning has always been with us and is here to stay. It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal or plant. It happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. It also happens in animals when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. The fact is that these are both examples of natural clones.
Cloning has two major uses. Firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. Secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. Cloning plants is straightforward while cloning animals is very complicated. It is a difficult task to undertake. Many attempts to clone mammals failed. But at last the determination and patience of the scientists paid off in 1996 with a breakthrough - the cloning of Dolly the sheep. The procedure works like this:
On the one hand, the whole scientific world followed the progress of the first successful clone, Dolly the sheep. The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. Then came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill. Cloning scientists were cast down to find that Dolly's illnesses were more appropriate to a much older animal. Altogether Dolly lived six and a half years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. Sadly the same arbitrary fate affected other species, such as cloned mice. The questions that concerned all scientists were: "Would this be a major difficulty for all cloned animals? Would it happen forever? Could it be solved if corrections were made in their research procedure?"
On the other hand, Dolly's appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination. It became controversial. It suddenly opened everybody's eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses and even to produce human beings.
Although at present human egg cells and embryos needed for cloning research are difficult to obtain, newspapers wrote of evil leaders hoping to clone themselves to attain their ambitions. Religious leaders also raised moral questions. Governments became nervous and more conservative. Some began to reform their legal systems and forbade research into human cloning, but other countries like China and the UK, continued to accumulate evidence of the abundant medical aid that cloning could provide. However, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us.
尽管目前供克隆研究的人体卵细胞和胚胎还很难得到，但报纸报道说，有些邪恶头目希望把自己克隆出来以实现他的野心。宗教领袖也提出了道德方面的问题。各国政府惶恐不安而且更加谨慎，有些政府开始改革司法制度，明令禁止进行克隆人类的研究。但是其他国家如中国和英国，则还在继续收集克隆技术有可能提供丰富有的医疗救助的证据。然而，科学察们仍对克隆技术有助于人类还是有害于人类，以及克隆技术将把我们引向何处困惑。 Using Language
Reading，discussing and writing
THE RETURN OF THE DINOSAURS?
The possibility of cloning fierce and extinct wild animals has always excited film makers. And they are not the only ones! The popularity of films such as Jurassic Park, in which a scientist clones several kinds of extinct dinosaurs, proves how the idea struck a mixture of fear and excitement into people's hearts. But in fact we are a long way from being able to clone extinct animals. Scientists are still experimenting with cloning mammals. This is because the cloning of mammals is still a new science and its story only began seriously in the 1950s as this list shows:
1950s cloning of frogs 1996 first clone of a mammal: Dolly the sheep
1970s research using the embryos of mice 2000 cow gave birth to a bison
1979 work on embryos of sheep and mice 2001 China's first cloned twin calves
1981 first experimental clones of mice 2002 first cloned cats
1983 first experimental clones of cows 2005 first cloned dog
From time to time people suggest that extinct animals like dinosaurs, can possibly be brought back to life through cloning. Unfortunately, with what we know now, this is either impossible or unsuitable. There are many reasons.
◎ The initial requirement is that you need perfect DNA (which gives information for how cellsare to grow).
◎ All efforts of cloning an animal will be in vain if there is not enough diversity in the group to overcome illnesses. Diversity in a group meanshaving animals with their genes arranged in different ways. The advantage is that if there is a new illness some of these animals may die,but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to the next generation. The great drawback to cloning a group ofanimals is that they would all have the same arrangement of genes and so might die of the same illness. Then none of them would be left tocontinue the species.
◎ It would be unfair to clone any extinct animals if they were to live in a zoo. A suitable habitat would be needed for them to lead a natural life.
Based on what we know now, you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. Actually, dinosaurs disappeared 65,000,000 years ago. So the chance of dinosaurs ever returning to the earth is merely a dream.
Unit 3 Inventors and inventions 第三单元 发明家及其发明
THE PROBLEM OF THE SHRIKES
When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. "There are some snakes in our courtyard," she told me. "Snakes come near the house now and then, and they seem to have made their home here, not far from the walnut tree. Can you get rid of them please?" I felt very proud. Here was a chance for .me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them. I knew my parents would not like me to hurt these living creatures!
The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. A new approach was clearly needed. I set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. Luckily these reptiles are small and that made the solution easier.
Prepared with some research findings, I decided on three possible approaches: firstly, removing their habitat; secondly, attracting them into a trap using male or female perfume or food; and thirdly cooling them so that they would become sleepy and could be easily caught. I decided to use the last one. I bought an ice-cream maker which was made of stainless steel. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. I put the bowl into the fridge and waited for 24 hours. At the same time I prepared some ice-cubes.
The next morning I got up early before the sun was hot. I placed the frozen bowl over the snakes' habitat and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl to keep it cool. Finally I covered the whole thing with a large bucket. Then I waited. After two hours I removed the bucket and the bowl. The snakes were less active but they were still too fast for me. They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall. So I had to adjust my plan.
For the second attempt I froze the bowl and the ice-cubes again but placed them over the snakes' habitat in the evening, as the temperature was starting to cool. Then as before, I covered the bowl with the bucket and left everything overnight. Early the next morning I returned to see the result. This time with great caution I bent down to examine the snakes and I found them very sleepy. But once picked up, they tried to bite me. As they were poisonous snakes, I clearly needed to improve my design again.
My third attempt repeated the second procedure. The next morning I carried in my hand a small net used for catching fish. This was in the expectation that the snakes would bite again. But monitored carefully, the snakes proved to be no trouble and all went according to plan. I collected the passive snakes and the next day we merrily released them all back into the wild.
Pressed by my friends and relations, I decided to seize the opportunity to get recognition formy successful idea by sending my invention to the patent office. Only after you have had thatrecognition can you say that you are truly an inventor. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. In addition, no invention will get a patent if it is:
◎a scientific idea or mathematical model
◎literature or art
◎a game or a business
◎a computer programme
◎a new animal or plant variety
Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product reallyis different from everyone else's. There are a large number of patent examiners, too, whose only job is to examine whether your claim is valid or not. If it passes all the tests, your application for a patent will be published 18 months from the date you apply. So I have filled in the form and filed my patent application with the Patent Office. Now it's a matter of waiting and hoping. You'll know if I succeed by the size of my bank balance! Wish me luck!
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847 in Scotland, but when he was young his family moved to Boston, USA. His mother was almost entirely deaf, so Alexander became interested in helping deaf people communicate and in deaf education. This interest led him to invent the microphone. He found that by pressing his lips against his mother's forehead, he could make his mother understand what he was saying.
He believed that one should always be curious and his most famous saying was:"Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. Every time you do you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before. Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind. All really big discoveries are the result of thought."
It was this exploring around problems and his dynamic spirit that led to his most famous invention - the telephone in 1876. Bell never set out to invent the telephone and what he was trying to design was a multiple telegraph. This original telegraph sent a message over distances using Morse code (a series of dots tapped out along a wire in a particular order). But only one message could go at a time. Bell wanted to improve it so that it could send several messages at the same time. He designed a machine that would separate different sound waves and allow different conversations to be held at the same time. But he found the problem difficult to solve. One day as he was experimenting with one end of a straw joined to a deaf man's ear drum and the other to a piece of smoked glass, Bell noticed that when he spoke into the ear, the straw drew sound waves on the glass. Suddenly he had a flash of inspiration. If sound waves could be reproduced in a moving electrical current, they could be sent along a wire. In searching to improve the telegraph,Bell had invented the first telephone!
Bell was fully aware of the importance of his invention and wrote to his father:"The day is coming when telegraph wires will be laid on to houses just like water or gas – and friends will talk to each other without leaving home."
The patent was given in 1876, but it was not until five days later that Bell sent his first telephone message to his assistant Watson. The words have now become famous:"Mr Watson - come here - I want to see you."
Alexander Graham Bell was not a man to rest and he interested himself in many other areas of invention. He experimented with helicopter designs and flying machines. While searching for a kite strong enough to carry a man into the air, Bell experimented putting triangles together and discovered the tetrahedron shape. Being very stable, it has proved invaluable in the design of bridges.
Bell was an inventor all his life. He made his first invention at eleven and his last at seventy- five. Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody's life.
Unit 4 Pygmalion 第四单元 皮格马利翁
Eliza Doolittle (E): a poor flower girl who is ambitious to improve herself
Professor Higgins (H): an expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person's English decides his/her position in society
Colonel Pickering (CP): an officer in the army and later a friend of Higgins' who sets him a task
Act One FATEFUL MEETINGS
11 :15 pm in London, England in 1914 outside a theatre. It is pouring with rain and cab whistles are blowing in all directions. A man is hiding from the rain listening to people's language and watching their reactions. While watching, he makes notes. Nearby a flower girl wearing dark garments and a woollen scarf is also sheltering from the rain. A gentleman (G) passes and hesitates for a moment.
E: Come over’ere, cap’in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl.
G: I'm sorry but I haven't any change.
E: I can giv’ou change, cap’in.
G: (surprised) For a pound? I'm afraid I've got nothing less.
E: (hopefully) Oah! Oh, do buy a flower off me, Captain. Take this for three pence. (holds up some dead flowers)
G: (uncomfortably) Now don't be troublesome, there's a good girl. (looks in his wallet and sounds more friendly) But, wait, here's some small change. Will that be of any use to you? It's raining heavily now, isn't it? (leaves)
E: (disappointed at the outcome, but thinking it is better than nothing) Thank you, sir. (sees a man taking notes and feels worried) Hey! I ain’t done nothing wrong by speaking to that gentleman. I've a right to sell flowers, I have. I ain’t no thief. I'm an honest girl I am! (begins to cry)
H: (kindly) There! There! Who's hurting you, you silly girl? What do you take me for? (gives her a handkerchief) E: I thought maybe you was a policeman in disguise.
H: Do I look like a policeman?
E: (still worried) Then why did 'ou take down my words for? How do I know whether 'ou took me down right? 'ou just show me what 'ou've wrote about me!
H: Here you are. (hands over the paper covered in writing)
E: What's that? That ain't proper writing. I can't read that. (pushes it back at him)
H: I can. (reads imitating Eliza) "Come over' ere, cap'in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl." (in his own voice) There you are and you were born
in Lisson Grove if I'm not mistaken.
E: (looking confused) What if I was? What's it to you?
CP: (has been watching the girl and now speaks to Higgins) That's quite brilliant! How did you do that, may I ask?
H: Simply phonetics studied and classified from people's own speech. That's my profession and also my hobby. You can place a man by just a few remarks. I can place any spoken conversation within six miles, and even within two streets in London sometimes.
CP: Let me congratulate you! But is there an income to be made in that?
H: Yes, indeed. Quite a good one. This is the age of the newly rich. People begin their working life in a poor neighbourhood
of London with 80 pounds a year and end in a rich one with 100 thousand. But they betray themselves every time they open their mouths. Now once taught by me, she'd become an upper class lady ...
CP: Is that so? Extraordinary!
H: (rudely) Look at this girl with her terrible English: the English that will condemn her to the gutter to the end of her days. But, sir, (proudly) once educated to speak properly, that girl could pass herself off in three months as a duchess at an ambassador's garden party. Perhaps I could even find her a place as a lady's maid or a shop assistant, which requires better English.
E: What's that you say? A shop assistant? Now that's sommat I want, that is!
H: (ignores her) Can you believe that?
CP: Of course! I study many Indian dialects myself and ...
H: Do you indeed? Do you know Colonel Pickering?
CP: Indeed I do, for that is me. Who are you?
H: I'm Henry Higgins and I was going to India to meet you.
CP: And I came to England to make your acquaintance!
E: What about me? How'll you help me?
H: Oh, take that. (carelessly throws a handful of money into her basket) We must have a celebration, my dear man. (leave together)
E: (looking at the collected money in amazement) Well, I never. A whole pound! A fortune! That'll help me, indeed it will. Tomorrow I'll find you, Henry Higgins. Just you wait and see! All that talk of (imitates him) "authentic English" ... (in her own voice) I'll see whether you can get that for me ... (goes out)
* * *
Reading and acting
Act Two, Scene 1
MAKING THE BET
It is 11am in Henry Higgins' house the next day. Henry Higgins and Colonel Pickering are sitting deep in conversation. H: Do you want to hear any more sounds?
CP: No, thank you. I rather fancied myself because I can pronounce twenty-four distinct vowel sounds; but your one hundred and thirty beat me. I can't distinguish most of them.
H: (laughing) Well, that comes with practice.
There is a knock and Mrs Pearce (MP), the housekeeper, comes in with cookies, a teapot, some cream and two cups. MP: (hesitating) A young girl is asking to see you.
H: A young girl! What does she want?
MP: Well, she's quite a common kind of girl with dirty nails.I thought perhaps you wanted her to talk into your machines. H: Why? Has she got an interesting accent? We'll see.Show her in, Mrs Pearce.
MP: (only half resigned to it) Very well, sir. (goes downstairs)
H: This is a bit of luck. I'll show you how I make records on wax disks ...
MP: (returning) This is the young girl, sir. (Eliza comes into the room shyly following Mrs Pearce. She is dirty and wearing a shabby dress. She curtsies to the two men.)
H: (disappointed) Why! I've got this girl in my records. She's the one we saw the other day. She's no use at all. Take her away.
CP: (gently to Eliza) What do you-want, young lady?
E: (upset) I wanna be a lady in a flower shop 'stead o' selling flowers in the street. But they won't take me 'less I speak better.
So here I am, ready to pay him. I'm not asking for any favours - and he treats me like dirt.
H: How much?
E: (happier) Now yer talking. A lady friend of mine gets French lessons for two shillings an hour from a real Frenchman. You wouldn't have the face to ask me for the same for teaching me as yer would for French. So I won't give yer more than a shilling.
H: (ignoring Eliza and speaking to Pickering) If you think of how much money this girl has - why, it's the best offer I've had! (to Eliza) But if I teach you, I'll be worse than a father.
CP: I say, Higgins. Do you remember what you said last night? I'll say you're the greatest teacher alive if you can pass her off as a lady. I'll be the referee for this little bet and pay for the lessons too ...
E: (gratefully) Oh, yer real good, yer are. Thank you, Colonel.
H: Oh, she is so deliciously low. (compromises) OK, I'll teach you. (to Mrs Pearce) But she'll need to be cleaned first. Take her away, Mrs Pearce. Wash her and burn her horrible clothes. We'll buy her new ones. What's your name, girl?
E: I'm Eliza Doolittle and I'm clean. My clothes went to the laundry when I washed last week.
MP: Well, Mr Higgins has a bathtub of his own and he has a bath every morning. If these two gentlemen teach you, you'll have to do the same. They won't like the smell of you otherwise.
E: (sobbing) I can't. I dursn't. It ain't natural and it'd kill me. I've never had a bath in my life; not over my whole body, neither below my waist nor taking my vest off. I'd never have come if I'd known about this disgusting thing you want me to do ...
H: Once more, take her away, Mrs Pearce, immediately. (Outside Eliza is still weeping with Mrs Pearce) You see the problem, Pickering. It'll be how to teach her grammar, not just pronunciation. She's in need of both.
CP: And there's another problem, Higgins. What are we going to do once the experiment is over?
H: (heartily) Throw her back.
CP: But you cannot overlook that! She'll be changed and she has feelings too. We must be practical, mustn't we?
H: Well, we'll deal with that later. First, we must plan the best way to teach her.
CP: How about beginning with the alphabet. That's usually considered very effective ... (fades out as they go offstage together)
Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors Appendices 第五单元 拜见祖先
A VISIT TO THE ZHOUKOUDIAIN CAVES
A group of students (S) from England has come to the Zhoukoudian caves for a visit. An archaeologist (A) is showing them round.
A: Welcome to the Zhoukoudian caves here in China. It is a great pleasure to meet you students from England, who are interested in archaeology. You must be aware that it's here that we found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. We've been excavating here for many years and ...
S1: I'm sorry to interrupt you but how could they live here? There are only rocks and trees.
A: Good question. You are an acute observer. We have found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and other objects. So we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold.
S2: How did they keep warm? They couldn't have mats, blankets or quilts like we do. It must have been very uncomfortable.
A: We've discovered fireplaces in the centre of the caves where they made fires. That would have kept them warm, cooked the food and scared wild beasts away as well. We have been excavating layers of ash almost six metres thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. We haven't found any doors but we think they might have hung animal skins at the cave mouth to keep out the cold during the freezing winter.
S3: What wild animals were there all that time ago?
A: Well, we've been finding the bones of tigers and bears in the caves, and we think these were their most dangerous enemies. Now what do you think this tells us about the life of these early people? (shows picture of a sewing needle) S2.: Gosh! That's a needle. Goodness, does that mean they repaired things?
A: What else do you think it might have been used for?
S4: Let me look at it. It's at most three centimetres long. Ah yes, it seems to be made of bone. I wonder how they made the hole for the ...
S2: (interrupting) Do you mean that they made their own clothes? Where did they get the material?
A: They didn't have material like we have today. Can you guess what they used?
Sl: Wow! Did they wear clothes made entirely of animal skins? How did they prepare them? I'm sure they were quite heavy
to cut and sew together.
A: Our evidence suggests that they did wear clothes made from animal skins. We continue discovering tools that were sharpeners for other tools. It seems that they used the sharpened stone tools to cut up animals and remove their skin. Then smaller scrapers were probably used to remove the fat and meat from the skin. After that they would rub an ample amount of salt onto the skin to make it soft. Finally, they would cut it and sew the pieces together. Quite a difficult and messy task! Now look at this. (shows a necklace)
S2:Why, it's a primitive necklace. Did early people really care about their appearance like we do? It's lovely!
A:Yes, and so well preserved. What do you think it's made of?.
S4:Let me see. Oh, I think some of the beads are made of animal bones but others are made of shells.
A:How clever you are! One bone is actually an animal tooth and the shells are from the seaside. Can you identify any other bones?
S1:This one looks very much like a fish bone. Is that reasonable?
A:Yes, indeed, as the botanical analyses have shown us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake. Probably there were fish in it.
S3:But a lake is not the sea. We are miles from the sea, so how did the seashells get here?
A:Perhaps there was trade between early peoples or they travelled to the seaside on their journeys. We know that they moved around, following the herds of animals. They didn't grow their own crops, but picked fruit when it ripened and hunted animals. That's why they are called hunters and gatherers. Now, why don't we go and visit the caves?
学1：哇，他们穿的衣服全都是用兽皮做的吗？他们那些衣服是怎样做成的？我确信它们裁剪并缝起来又厚又重。 考：我们有证据表明，他们的确穿的是用兽皮制的衣服。我们不断发现一些磨削其他工具用的工具。看样子他们可能是用磨尖的石器来切割野兽并剥皮，再用小一些的刮子把皮上的脂肪和肉去掉。然后，他们可能在兽皮上擦上大量的盐，使皮变柔软。最后进行剪裁，缝起来就成了。确实是既难又脏的活！现在来看看这个吧。（指着一串项链） 考：你真聪明！有块骨头实际上是野兽的牙齿，贝壳是从海边捡来的。你还认得别的骨头吗？
Reading and speaking
THE FEAST: 18,000 BC
Worried about the preparations for her feast, Lala quickly turned for home with her collection of nuts, melons and other fruit. It was the custom of family groups to separate and then gather again at different sites for reunions as they followed the animal herds across the grasslands. A wrinkle appeared on her forehead. If only it could be just like last year! At that time she had been so happy when Dahu chose her as the future mother of his children. He was the best toolmaker in the group and it was a great honour for her to be chosen. She remembered the blood pulsing through her veins. She had felt so proud as the group shouted loudly to applaud his choice. If only she had looked ahead and planned better this year! Then she wouldn't have been feeling so worried now.
Having heard wolves howling in the forest, Lala accelerated her walk up the path to the caves fearing that there might be wild beasts lying in wait for her. She had no man with his spear to protect her. She had almost reached her destination when a delicious smell arrested her progress and she stopped. So the men had brought home the meat for the feast! The smell of cooking meat filled the air surrounding her, and her senses became dizzy with hunger. She could see her mother and the older children preparing the deer and pig meat over the fire. Her aunts were making clothes with animal skins.
Abruptly she sat down, only to be scooped up by her laughing, shouting sister, Luna. Lala smiled with relief. It was good to have her family around her.
Just then a tall man came up behind her. He had a large, square face, with strongly pronounced eyebrows and
cheekbones. Over his shoulder he carried several fish and some pieces of wood under his arm. Lala smiled and handed some stone scrapers over to Dahu, who smiled and went outside the cave to begin his task.
First he looked carefully at the scrapers and then went to a corner of the cave and pulled out some more tools. They were in a pile with other sharp arrowheads and stone axe-heads. He chose one large stone and began to use it like a hammer striking the edge of the scraper that needed sharpening. Now and then Dahu would stop, look at it and try it against his hand before continuing his task. He stopped when he felt the scrapers were sharp enough to cut up the meat and scrape the fish. As he passed them to Lala, the first of the guests from the neighbouring caves began to arrive for dinner. Lala's spirits rose. Yes, it was going to be just as wonderful as last year! She smiled to herself gaily and went out of the cave to welcome her friends and neighbours.
Unit 1 Art 第一单元 艺术
A SHORT HISTORY OF WESTERN PAINTING
Art is influenced by the customs and faith of a people. Styles in Western art have changed many times. As there are so many different styles of Western art, it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. Consequently, this text will describe only the most important ones. Starting from the sixth century AD.
The Middle Ages(5th to the 15th century AD)
During the Middle Ages, the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes. A conventional artistof this period was not interested in showing nature and people as they really were. A typical picture at this time was full of religious symbols, which created a feeling of respect and love for God. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way.
The Renaissance(15th to 16th century)
During the Renaissance, new ideas and values gradually replaced those held in the Middle Ages. People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a more humanistic attitude to life.At the same time painters returned to classical Roman and Greek ideas about art. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. Rich people wanted to possess their own paintings, so they coule decorate their superb palaces and great houses. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions as well as their activities and achievements.
One of the most important discoveries during this period was how to draw things in perspective. This technique was first used by Masaccio in 1428. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. By coincidence,oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colours used in paintings look richer and deeper. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous.
Impressionism(late 19h to early 20th century)
In the late 19th century, Europe changed a great deal,from a mostly agricultural society to a mostly industrial one. Many people moved from the countryside to the new cities. There were many new inventions and social changes also led to new painting styles. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worke in Paris.
The Impressionists were the first painters to work outdoors. They were eager to show how light and shadow fell on objects at different times of day. However, because natural light changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, many people disliked this style of painting and became very angry about it. They said that the painters were careless and their paintings were ridiculous. Modern Art(29th century to today)
At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepeted as the beginning of what we call "modern art". This is because the Impressionists encouraged artists to look at their environment in new ways. There are scores of modern art styles,but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles might not exsist. On the one hand, some modern art is abstract; that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates n certain qualities of the object, using colour, line and shape to represent them. On the other hand, some paintings of modern art are so realistic that they look like photographs. These styles are so different. Who can predict what painting styles there will be in the future?
The Best of Manhattan‟s Galleries
The Frick Collection(5th Avenue and E.70th Street)
Many art lovers would rather visit this small art gallery than any other in New York. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. Frick had a preference for pre-twentieth century Western paintings, and these are well-represented in this excellent collection. You can also explore Frick‟s beautiful home and garden which are well worth a visit.
Guggenheim Museum(5th Avenue and 88th Street)
This museum owns 5,000 modern paintings, sculptures and drawings. These art works are not all displayed at the same time.The exhibition is always changing. It will apeal to those who love Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings.The Guggenheim Museum building is also world-famous. When you walk into the gallery, you fell as if you were inside a fragile ,white seashell. The best way to see the paintings is to start from the top floor and walk down to the bottom. There are no stairs, just a circular path. The museum also has an excellent reaturant.
Metropolitan Museum of Art(5th Avenue and 82nd Street)
The reputation of this museum lies in the variety if its art collection. This covers more than 5,000 years of civilization from many parts if the world, including America, Europe, China, Egypt, other African countries and South America.The museun diaplays more than just the visual delights of art.It introduces you to ancient ways of living. You can visit an Egyptian temple, a fragrant Ming garden, a typical room in an 18th century French house and other special exhibitions. Museum of Modern Art(53rd Street, btween 5th and 6th Avenues)
It is amazing that so many great works of from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. The collection of Western art includes paintings by such famous artists as Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso and Matisse. Afew
words of warning:the admission price is not cheap an the meseum is often very crowded.
Whitney Museum of American Art(945 Madison Avenue, near 75th Street)
The Whitney holds an excellent colection of comtemporary painting and sclpture. There are no permanent displays in this museum and exhibitions change all the time. Every two years, the Whitney holds a special exhibition of new art by living artists. The museum also shows videos and films by comtemporary video artists.
Unit 2 Poems 第二单元 诗歌
A few simple forms of English poems
There are various reasons why people write poetry. Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way that will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to convey certain emotions. Poets use many different forms of poetry to express themselves. In this text, however, we will look at a few of the simpler forms.
Some of the first poetry a young child learns in English is nursery rhymes. These rhymes like the one on the right (A) are still a common type of children's poetry. The language is concrete but imaginative, and they delight small children because they rhyme, have strong rhythm and a lot of repetition. The poems may not make sense and even seem contradictory, but they are easy to learn and recite. By playing with the words in nursery rhymes, children learn about language.
Hush, little baby, don't say a word,
Papa's going to buy you a mockingbird.
If that mockingbird won't sing,
Papa's going to buy you a diamond ring.
If that diamond ring turns to brass,
Papa's going to buy you a looking-glass.
If that looking-glass gets broke,
Papa's going to buy you a billy-goat.
If that billy-goat runs away,
Papa's going to buy you another today.
One of the simplest kinds of poems are those like B and C that list things.List poems have a flexible line length and repeated phrases which give both a pattern and a rhythm to the poem.Some rhyme (like B) while others do not (like C).
I saw a fish- pond all on fire
I saw a fish-pond all on fire,
I saw a house bow to a squire,
I saw a person twelve-feet high,
I saw a cottage in the sky,
I saw a balloon made of lead,
I saw a coffin drop down dead,
I saw two sparrows run a race,
I saw two horses making lace,
I saw a girl just like a cat,
I saw a kitten wear a hat,
I saw a man who saw these too,
And said though strange they all were true.
Our first football match
We would have won ...
if Jack had scored that goal,
if we'd had just a few more minutes,
if we had trained harder,
if Ben had passed the ball to Joe,
if we'd had thousands of fans screaming,
if I hadn't taken my eye off the ball,
if we hadn't stayed up so late the night before,
if we hadn't taken it easy,
if we hadn't run out of energy.
We would have won ...
if we'd been better!
Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is the cinquain, a poem made up of five lines.With these, students can convey a strong picture in just a few words. Look at the examples (D and E) on the top of the next page.
Teasing, shouting, laughing
Friend and enemy too
Drying, drooping, dreading
Week in, week out
Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry that is made up of 17 syllables.It is not a traditional form of English poetry, but is very popular with English writers.It is easy to write and, like the cinquain , can give a clear picture and create a special feeling using the minimum of words.The two haiku poems (F and G) above are translations from the Japanese.
A fallen blossom
Is coming back to the branch.
Look, a butterfly!
( by Moritake)
Snow having melted,
The whole village is brimful
Of happy children.
Did you know that English speakers also enjoy other forms of Asian poetry - Tang poems from China in particular?A lot of Tang poetry has been translated into English.This Tang poem (H) is a translation from the Chinese.
Where she awaits her husband
(by Wang Jian)
On and on the river flows.
Never looking back,Transformed into stone.
Day by day upon the mountain top,wind and rain revolve.
Should the traveller return,this stone would utter speech.
Listening，reading and discussing
I'VE SAVED THE SUMMER
(by Rod McKuen)
I've saved the summer
And I give it all to you
To hold on winter mornings
When the snow is new.
I've saved some sunlight
If you should ever need
A place away from darkness
Where your mind can feed.
And for myself I've kept your smile
When you were but nineteen,
Till you're older you'll not know
What brave young smiles can mean.
I know no answers
To help you on your way
The answers lie somewhere
At the bottom of the day.
But if you've a need for love
I'll give you all l own
It might help you down the road
Till you've found your own.
Unit 3 A healthy life 第三单元 健康生活
ADVICE FROM GRANDAD
It is a beautiful day here and I am sitting under the big tree at the end of the garden. I have just returned from a long bike ride to an old castle. It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometres in an afternoon. It's my birthday in two weeks time and I'll be 82 years old! I think my long and active life must be due to the healthy life I live.
This brings me to the real reason for my letter, my dear grandson. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. Believe me, I know how easy it is to begin smoking and how tough it is to stop. You see, during adolescence I also smoked and became addicted to cigarettes.
By the way, did you know that this is because you become addicted in three different ways? First, you can become physically addicted to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cigarettes. This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed to having nicotine in it. So when the drug leaves your body, you get withdrawal symptoms. I remember feeling bad-tempered and sometimes even in pain. Secondly, you become addicted through habit. As you know, if you do the same thing over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. Lastly, you can become mentally addicted. I believed I was happier and more relaxed after having a cigarette, so I began to think that I could only feel good when I smoked. I was addicted in all three ways, so it was very difficult to quit. But I did finally manage.
When I was young, I didn't know much about the harmful effects of smoking. I didn't know, for example, that it could do terrible damage to your heart and lungs or that it was more difficult for smoking couples to become pregnant. I certainly didn't know their babies may have a smaller birth weight or even be abnormal in some way. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non-smokers. However, what I did know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. She said my breath and clothes smelt, and that the ends of my fingers were turning yellow. She told me that she wouldn't go out with me again unless I stopped! I also noticed that I became breathless quickly, and that I wasn't enjoying sport as much. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking.
I am sending you some advice I found on the Internet. It might help you to stop and strengthen your resolve. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have.
How can you stop smoking?
It is not easy to stop smoking, but millions have managed to quit and so can you. Here are a few suggestions.
Prapare youself. Decide on a day to quit. Don‟t choose a day that you know is going to be stressful, such as the day of an exam. Make a list of all the benefits you will get from stopping smoking. Then throw away your last packet of cigarettes. Be determined. Every time you fell like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non-smoker. Reread the list
of benefits you wrote earlier.
Break the habit. Instead of smoking a cigarette, do something else. Go for a walk, clean your teeth, frink some water, clean the house; in fact, do anything to keep ypur mind and especially your hands busy.
Relax. If you start to feel nervous or stressed, do not raech for a cigarette. Try some deep breathing instead. Do some relaxationg exercises every time you feel stressed.
Get help if you need it. Arrange to stop smoking with a friend so you can talk about your problems,or join a stop-smoking group. If you feel desperate , you might like to talk to a doctor or chemist about something to help you, like nicotine chewing gum.
Keep trying. Don‟t be disappointed if you have to try several times before you finally stop smoking. If you weaken and have a cigarette,do not feel ashamed. Just try again. You will succeed finally.
下定决心。 每次当你想要抽烟的时候 ，你就提醒你自己，你已经是不抽烟的人了。把你早先写的那个戒烟的好处的清单反复地看一看。
HIV/AIDS:ARE YOU AT RISK?
HIV is a virus. A virus is a very small living thing that causes disease. There are many different viruses, for example, the flu virus or the SARS virus. HIV weakens a person's immune system; that is, the part of the body that fights disease. You can have HIV in your blood for a long time, but eventually HIV will damage your immune system so much that you body can no longer fight disease. This stage of the illness is called AIDS. If you develop AIDS, your chances of survival are very small.
HIV is spread through blood or the fluid that the body makes during sex. For a person to become infected, blood or sexual fluid that carries the virus, has to get inside the body through broken skin or by injection. One day scientists will find a cure for HIV/AIDS.
Until that happens, you need to protect yourself. Here are some things you can do to make sure you stay safe. If you inject drugs:
do not share your needle with anyone else. Blood from another person can stay on or in the needle. If a person has HIV and you use the same needle, you could inject the virus into your own blood.
do not share anything else that a person has used while injecting drugs.Blood could have spilt on it.
If you have sex with a male or a female:
use a condom. This will prevent sexual fluid passing from one person to another.
The following statements are NOT true.
A person cannot get HIV the first time they have sex.WRONG. If one sexual partner has HIV, the other partner could become infected.
You can tell by looking at someone whether or not they have HIV.WRONG. Many people carrying HIV look perfectly healthy. It is only when the disease has progressed to AIDS that a person begins to look sick.
Only homosexuals get AIDS.WRONG. Anyone who has sex with a person infected with H1V/AIDS risks getting the virus. Women are slightly more likely to become infected than men.
If you hug, touch or kiss someone with AIDS or visit them in their home, you will get HIV/AIDS.WRONG.You can only get the disease from blood or sexual fluid.Unfortunately, people with HIV sometimes lose their friends because of prejudice.Many people are afraid that they will get HIV/AIDS from those infected with HIV!AIDS. For the same reason, some AIDS patients cannot find anyone to look after them when they are sick.
You can get HIV/AIDS from mosquitoes.WRONG. There is no evidence of this.
Unit 4 Global warming 第四单元 全球在变暖
THE EARTH IS BECOMIG WARMER-BUT DOES IT MATTER?
During the 20th century the temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when compared to other natural changes. So how has this come about and does it matter? Earth care's Sophie Armstrong explores these questions.
There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer(see Graph 1) and that it is human activity that has caused this global warmig rather than a random but natural phenomenon.
All scientists subscribe to the view that the increase in the earth's temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce energy. Some byproducts of this process are called "greenhouse" gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide. Dr Janice Foster explains:
"There is a natural phenomenon that scientists call the "greenhouse effect".This is when small amounts of gases in the atmosphere, like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour, trap heat from the sun and therefore warm the earth. Without the'greenhouse effect the earth would be about thirty-three degrees Celsciu cooler than it is. So, we need those gases. The problem begins when we add huge quantities of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It means that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere causing the global temperature to go up.
We know that the levels of carbon dioxide have increased greatly over the last 100 to 150 years. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. He found that between these years the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere went up from around 315 parts to around 370 parts per million(see Graph 2)
All scientists accept this data. They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. So how high will the temperature increase go? Dr Janice Foster says that over the next 100 years the amount of warming could be as low as 1 to 1.5 degrees Celsius, but it could be as high as 5 degrees.However, the attitude of scientists towards this rise in completely different.
On the one hand, Dr Foster thinks that the trend which increases the temperature by 5 degrees would be a catastrophe. She says, " We can't predict the climate well enough to know what to expect, but it could be very serious."
Others who agree with her think there may be a rise of several metres in the sea level, or predict severe storms, floods, droughts, famines, the spread of diseases and the disappearance of species.
On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view, believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. They predict that any warming will be mild with few bad environmental consequences. In fact, Hambley states,
"More carbon dioxide is actually a positive thing. It will make plants grow quicker; crops will produce more; it will encourage a greater range of animals-all of which will make life for human beings better."
Greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. No one knows the effects of global warming. Does that mean we should do nothing? Or, are the risks too great?
WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING?
Dear Earth Care,
I am doing a project on behalf of my school about global warming. Sometimes I feel that individuals can have little effect on such huge environmental problems. However, 1 still think people should advocate improvements in the way we use energy today. As I'm not sure where to start with my project, I would appreciate any suggestions you may have.
Dear Ouyang Guang,
There are many people who have a commitment like yours, but they do not believe they have the power to do anything to improve our environment. That is not true. Together, individuals can make a difference. We do not have to put up with pollution.
The growth of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the air actually comes as a result of many things we do every day. Here are a few suggestions on how to reduce it. They should get you started with your project.
We use a lot of energy in our houses. It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so long as you are using it - if not, turn it off! Do not be casual about this. So if you are not using the lights, the TV, the computer, and so on, turn them off. If you are cold, put on more clothes instead of turning up the heat.
Motor vehicles use a lot of energy- so walk or ride a bike if you can.
Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags and newspapers if circumstances allow you to. It takes a lot of energy to make things from new materials, so, if you can, buy things made from recycled materials.
Get your parents to buy things that are economical with energy - this includes cars as well as smaller things like fridges and microwaves.
Plant trees in your garden or your school yard, as they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and refresh your spirit when you look at them.
Finally and most importantly, be an educator. Talk with your family and friends about global warming and tell them what you have learned.
Remember - your contribution counts!
Unit 5 The power of nature Workbook 第五单元 大自然的力量
AN EXCITING JOB
I have the greatest job in the world. I travel to unusual places and work alongside people from all over the world. Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored. Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don't mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive. However, the most important thing about my job is that I help protect ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces n earth-the volcano.
I was appointed as volcanologist information for a database about Mount Kilauea, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. Our work has saved man lives because people in the path of the lava can be warned to leave their houses. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground.
When boiling rock erupts from a volcano and crashes back to earth, it causes less damage than you might imagine. This is because no one lives near the top of Mount Kilauea, where the rocks fall. The lava that flows slowly like a wave down the mountain causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. However, the eruption itself is really exciting to watch and I shall never forget my first sight of one. It was in the second week after I arrived in Hawaii. Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. I was fast asleep when suddenly my bed began shaking and I heard a strange sound, like a railway train passing my window. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn't take much notice. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. I ran out of the house into the back garden where I could see Mount Kilauea in the distance. There had been an eruption from the side of the mountain and red hot lava was fountaining hundreds of metres into the air. It was an absolutely fantastic sight.
The day after this eruption I was lucky enough to have a much closer look at it. Two other scientists and I were driven up the mountain and dropped as close as possible to the crater that had been formed duing the eruption. Having earlier collected special clothes from the observatory, we put them on before we went any closer. All three of us looked like spacemen. We had white protective suits that covered our whole body, helmets,big boots and special gloves. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them.
Today, I am just as enthusiastic about my job as the day I first started. Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am still amazed their beauty as well as their potential to cause great damage.
THE LRKE OF HERVEN
Changbaishan is in Jilin Province, Northeast China.Much of this beautiful, mountainous area is thick forest . Changbaishan is China's largest nature reserve and it is kept in its natural state for the people of China and visitors from all over the world to enjoy. The height of the land varies from 700 metres above sea level to over 2,000 metres and is home to a great diversity of rare plants and animals. Among the rare animals are cranes, black bears, leopards and tigers. Many people come to Changbaishan to study its unique plants and animals. Others come to walk in the mountains, to see the spectacular waterfalls or to bathe in the hot water pools. However, the attraction that arouses the greatest appreciation in the reserve is Tianchi or the Lake of Heaven.
Tianchi is a deep lake that has formed in the crater of a dead volcano on top of the mountain. The lake is 2,194 metres above sea level, and more than 200 metres deep. In winter the surface freezes over. It takes about an hour to climb from the end of the road to the top of the mountain. When you arrive you are rewarded not only with the sight of its clear waters, but also by
the view of the other sixteen mountain peaks that surround Tianchi.
There are many stories told about Tianchi. The most well-known concerns three young women from heaven. They were bathing in Tainchi when a bird flew above them and dropped a small fruit onto the dress of the youngest girl. When she picked up the fruit to smell it, it flew into her mouth.Having swallowed the fruit, the girl became pregnant and later gave birth to a handsome boy. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people.
If you are lucky enough to visit the Lake of Heaven with your loved one, don't forget to drop a coin into the clear blue water to guarantee your love will be as deep and lasting as the lake itself.
1．这次，我看到了 。那里的天比别处 ，空气
是那么 ，天空是那么 ，使我总想高歌一曲，表示
我 。在天底下， ，而并不茫茫。 小丘，平地是绿的，小丘也 ，羊群一会儿
的 。那些小丘的线条是 ，
十里 。再走一百五十里， 。草原上
着 ，群马疾驰， ，像一条彩虹向我
头， ， ，在汽车的左右与前面引路。静寂的草原热
3.《白杨》 白杨树从来 。哪儿需要它，它就在
到 ，不管遇到 ，
它总是 ， ， ， 。”
5.《古诗词三首》 《牧童》（唐）吕岩 草铺横野六七
里， 。归来饱饭黄昏后， 。
《舟过安仁》 （宋）杨万里 一叶渔船两小童，收篙停棹坐船
中。 ， 。
《清平乐·村居》 （宋）辛弃疾 茅檐低小， 。
醉里吴音相媚好， ？ 大儿锄豆溪
6、《冬阳·童年·骆驼队》 爸爸和他 。人在
气， 。我看呆了，自己的牙齿也动起来。 老师教给我， ， 。
道， ，长脖子底下 ，
夏天过去， ， ，骆驼队又来
了，但是 。冬阳底下 ，
10、《杨氏之子》 梁国杨氏子九岁， 。孔君平诣其
父， ，乃呼儿出。为设果， 。孔指以示儿
14、《再见了，亲人》 大娘， ！
纪， ？ ！为什么摇
役的时候， 由于敌机的封锁， 。
再见了，亲人！ 跟你们在一起。 .
抬头向上看，家家户户 、 。
花。 ， 。我
哪一处好。 商人夹了大包的货物， 。
B课文描写了 年 最后一批官兵离朝回国时，
C大娘：洗补衣服，三天没合眼；送食物，累得昏倒；救伤员，失去 的亲人。小金花：为救 ，失去 。
大嫂：为志愿军 ，失去 。志愿军： ，
帮助朝鲜人民 。 D这篇课文的前三个自然段在表达上有什么共同点？
《金色的鱼钩》A写出了老班长 、 、 的精神永垂不朽。他可歌可泣的英雄事迹，闪烁着 的思想光辉。
士 、 的崇高品质。C“金色的鱼钩” 象征着老
《桥》文中的老汉以 和 、 、 的精神保护了村民，老汉为代表的优秀共产党
员就是密切联系群众的“ ”。他在人们心中目中的地位很高，是人们获得生的希望的“ ”。
A这篇课文的句子和段落与我们平常读的文章有什么不同？这样写有什么好处？答：这篇课文的句子和段落都 ，这样写的好处是 。B老汉的精神品质： 、 、 。
《梦想的力量》课文通过记叙6岁的加拿大男孩 为了实现“ ”这一梦想，而不懈努力，终于使梦想成真的经过，体现了瑞恩的一颗 。
《将相和》:“将”是指 ，“相”是指 ，“和”是 的意思。 A本篇课文是根据 代的 《 》中的《 》改写的。B《史记》：被 称为 。
C中心思想：课文以 两国的矛盾为背景，以 的活动为线索，通过对 三个小故事的记述，写出了将相之间由 到 的经过，赞扬了蔺相如 、 的斗争精神和 ， 的可贵品质和政治远见，也赞扬了廉颇 的精神。
D从结构上看，全文由 、 、 3个小故事组成，每个故事都有矛盾的发生、发展和结果，有相对的独立性，但又紧密联系，第2 个故事是第 1个故事的 ，前两个故事的 ，又是第3个故事的 。
F《史记》作者是 的 ，其中有这些个性鲜
明的人物：治水三过家门而不入的 ，伟大的诗人 ，西楚霸王 。《史记》被 先生称为 。
《草船借箭》A根据我国著名古典历史小说 中有关“ ”的情节改写的。草船借箭的故事发生在 。作者： 。
B中心思想：故事以“借”为主线，按事情发展顺序进行叙述。先写了 ；接着写了 ；然后重点 ；最后写了 C诸葛亮： 。 周瑜： 鲁肃： 曹操：
D《三国演义》中的故事还有“ ”“ ”“ ”“ ”。
《景阳冈》 A《景阳冈》是根据我国著名古典小说 第 回选编的，作者： B中心思想：课文记叙了武松在阳谷县的一家酒店内开怀畅饮后，趁着酒兴上了景阳冈，赤手空拳打死猛虎的故事，表现了武松 、 、 、 的英雄性格。 C全文按事情发展的顺序，依次写了 、 、 、 。
D《水浒传》中还有很多个性人物：及时雨 、豹子头 、智多星 、黑旋风 、浪里白条 。
A这篇略读课文节选自我国古典神话小说《 》第 回。作者 朝代的 。 B中心思想：课文主要写了花果山上一块仙石孕育了一只石猴，这石猴与群猴玩耍时，因敢于第一个跳进水帘洞，被群猴拜为猴王，表现了石猴 、 的特点。
A、信息传递方式 古代： 、 、 近
现代： 、 。当代： 、 和 。B古人传递信息的方式： 、 、 等。
C调查研究问题：1、 。2、 。
3、 。4、 。5 。
A《小嘎子和胖墩儿比赛摔跤》选自 的中篇小说《 》，本文主要通过 和 的描写反映了小嘎子 、 、 、 、 ，胖墩儿 的个性特点。
B《临死前的严监生》选自 代 的小说《 》本文主要通过 描写及 描写淋漓尽致、入木三分地刻画了严监生 形象。
C《“凤辣子”初见林黛玉》选自 代 的长篇小说《 》本文从 描写和 描写两个方面展示了 的性格特征，并主要通过 描写、 描写及 描写展示了一个 、 、 、 、 、 和 的人物形象。其中王熙凤的 、 描写属于 面描写； 、 是 面描写。
中国四大名著：《 》罗贯中、《 》施耐庵、《 》吴承恩、《 》曹雪芹。
A本文选自 的《 》。B刷子李： 、 、 C文章最后一句话意思有：1、“刷子李”确实有绝活，这一绝活，要不是亲眼看见，怎么也不敢相信是真的，说明“刷子李” 。2、“刷子
李”的绝活是他 、 的结果。3、“刷子李”的所言所行深深震撼了曹小三，让他感触很深，获益颇多。
《金钱的魔力》节选 著名作家 的 《 》。本文刻画了小市民托德 、 的丑态，也刻画出了老板的 、 、 、 的丑态。
A作者 ，表达了自己对德国 和 风俗习惯的赞美之情。“人人为我，我为人人”的含义是：
介绍了 、 和 。本文抓住了 并把人的 和 、 结合起来， 、 、 相互联系。
《与象共舞》作者 ，每个自然段单独成段，围绕着泰国人与大象关系亲密，每一段分别有一个 。作者用“与象共舞”为题，体现了泰国人与大象的关系 ，大象给泰国人的生活带来了 。
28、《彩色的非洲》作者 ，本文作者以饱满的热情，描述了非洲的 、花 、 、 以及 ，从多个方面展示了非洲是一个“ 。
ANNE’S BEST FRIEND
Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? Or are you afraid that your friend would laugh at you, or would not understand what you are going through? Anne Frank wanted the first kind, so she made her diary her best friend.
Anne lived in Amsterdam in the Netherlands during World War II. Her family was Jewish so the had to hide or they would be caught by the German Nazis. She and her family hide away for two years before they were discovered. During that time the only true friend was her diary. She said, “I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do, but I want this diary itself to be my friend, and I shall call my friend Kitty.” Now read how she felt after being in the hiding place since July 1942.
Thursday 15, June, 1944
I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. That’s changed since I was here.
„For example, when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window. Another time some months ago, I happened to be upstairs one evening when the window was open. I didn’t go downstairs until the window had to be shut. The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power; it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face…
„Sadly…I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows. It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced.
Using Language 语言运用
Reading and listening 读与听
1 Read the letter that Lisa wrote to Miss Wang of Radio for Teenagers and predict what Miss Wang will say. After listening, check and discuss her advice.
Dear Miss Wang,
I am having some trouble with my classmates at the moment. I’m getting along well with a boy in my class. We often do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. We have become really good friends. But other students have started gossiping. They say that this boy and I have fallen in love. This has made me angry. I don’t want to end the friendship, but I hate others gossiping. What should I do?
Reading and writing 读与写
Miss Wang has received a letter from Xiaodong. He is also asking for some advice. Read the letter on the right carefully and help Miss Wang answer it.
Dear Miss Wang,
I’m a student from Huzhou Senior High School. I have a problem. I’m not very good at communicating with people. Although I try to talk to my classmates, I still find it hard to make good friends with them. So I feel quite lonely sometimes. I do want to change this situation, but I
don’t know how. I would be grateful if you could give me some advice.
2 Decide which are the best ideas and put them into an order. Then write down your advice and explain how it will help. Each idea can make one paragraph. The following sample and the expressions may help you
I’m sorry you are having trouble in making friends. However, the situation is easy to change if you follow my advice. Here are some tips to help you.
First, why not…?
If you do this,…
Secondly, you could / can …
Then / That way, …
Thirdly, it would be a good idea if …
By doing this, …
I hope you will find these ideas useful.
LEARNING TIP 学习建议
It’s a good habit for you to keep a diary. It can help you remember past events. You can express your feelings and thoughts in it. It will help you improve your English if you write your diary in English. Why not have a try?
THE ROAD TO MODERN ENGLISH
At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English. Nearly all of them lived in England. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. Today, more people speak English as their first, second or foreign language than ever before. 通向现代英语之路
Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. Look at this example:
British Betty: Would you like to see my flat?
American Amy: Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment.
So why has English changed over time? Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. At first the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoken first Danish and later French. These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. In 1620 some British settlers moved to America. Later in the 18th century some British people were taken to Australia too. English began to be spoken in both countries.
Finally by the 19th century the language was settled. At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language. The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling.
English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia. For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947. During that time English became the language for government and education. English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell.
Using Language 语言运用
STANDARD ENGLISH AND DIALECTS
What is standard English? Is it spoken in Britain, the US, Canada, Australia, India and New Zealand? Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. Many people believe the English spoken on TV and the radio is standard English. This is because in the early days of radio, those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. However, on TV and the radio you will hear differences in the way people speak. When people use words and expressions different form “standard language”, it is called a dialect. American English has many dialects, especially the midwestern, southern, African American and Spanish dialects. Even in some parts of the USA, two people from neighbouring towns speak a little differently. American English has so many dialects because people have come from all over the world.
Geography also plays a part in making dialects. Some people who live in the mountains of the eastern USA speak with an older kind of English dialect. When Americans moved form one place to another, they took their dialects with them. So people from the mountains in the southeastern USA speak with almost the same dialect as people in the northwestern USA. The USA is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. Although many Americans move a lot, they still recognize and understand each other’s dialects.
Reading and speaking 读与说
1 Amy and her American friends are visiting London. They plan to visit Amy’s aunt and decide to go there by underground, but cannot find the nearest underground station. So she asks directions and then tells her friends. Read the dialogue and circle the words that mean the same. 1 艾米和她的美国朋友正在参观伦敦。她们计划去拜访艾米的姑妈，并决定乘地铁去，但是她们找不到最近的地铁站。所以她问问了路，然后告诉她的朋友。读对话，然后圈出意思相同的词。
AMY: Excuse me, Ma’ma. Could you tell me where the nearest subways is?
LADY: Er...the underground? Well, go round the corner on your left-hand side, straight on and cross two streets. It’ll be on your right-hand side.
AMY: Thanks so much.
FRIENDS: What did she say, Amy?
AMY: She told us to go around the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks. The subway will be on our right.
right-hand side←→right （右边）
JOURNEY DOWN THE MEKONG
PART 1 THE DREAM AND THE PLAN
My name is Wang Kun. Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed
about taking a great bike trip. Two years ago she bought an expensive mountain bike and then she persuaded me to buy one. Last year, she visited our cousins, Dao Wei and Yu Hang at their college in Kunming. They are Dai and grew up in western Yunnan Province near the Lancang River, the Chinese part of the river that is called the Mekong River in other countries. Wang Wei soon got them interested in cycling too. After graduating from college.we finally got the chance to take a bike trip. I asked my sister, "Where are we going?" It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. Now she is planning our schedule for the trip.
I am fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming. She can be really stubborn. Although she didn't know the best way of getting to places, she insisted that she organize the trip properly. Now, I know that the proper way is always her way. I kept asking her, "When are we leaving and when are we coming back?" I asked her whether she had looked at a map yet. Of course, she hadn't; my sister doesn't care about details. So I told her that the source of the Mekong is in Qinghai Province. She gave me a determined look—the kind that said she would not change her mind. When I told her that our journey would begin at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, she seemed to be excited about it. When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience. I know my sister well. Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it. Finally, I had to give in.
Several months before our trip,Wang Wei and I went to the library. We found a large atlas with good maps that showed details of world geography. From the atlas we could see that the Mekong River begins in a glacier on a Tibetan mountain. At first the river is small and the water is clear and cold. Then it begins to move quickly. It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, travelling across western Yunnan Province. Sometimes the river becomes a waterfall and enters wide valleys. We were both surprised to learn that half of the river is in China. After it leaves China and the high altitude,the Mekong becomes wide，brown and warm. As it enters Southeast Asia, its pace slows. It makes wide bends or meanders through low valleys to the plains where rice grows. At last, the river delta enters the South China Sea.
Reading and discussing
JOURNEY DOWN THE MEKONG
PART 2 A NIGHT IN THE MOUNTAINS
Although it was autumn, the snow was already beginning to fall in Tibet.Our legs were so heavy and cold that they felt like blocks of ice. Have you ever seen snowmen ride bicycles? That's what we looked like! Along the way children dressed in long wool coats stopped to look at us. In the late afternoon we found it was so cold that our water bottles froze.However,the lakes shone like glass in the setting sun and looked wonderful.Wang Wei rode in front of me as usual.She is very reliable and I knew I did't need to encourage her.To climb the mountains was hard work but as we looked around us,we were surprised by the view.We seemed to be able to see for miles.At one point we were so high that we found ourselves cycling through clouds.Then we began going down the hills.It was great fun especially as it gradually became much warmer.In the valleys colourful butterflies flew around us and we saw many yaks and sheep eating green grass.At this point we had to change our caps,coats,gloves and trousers for T-shirts and shorts.
In the early evening we always stop to make camp.We put up our tent and then we eat.After supper Wang Wei put her head down on her pillow and went to sleep but I stayed awake.At midnight the sky became clearer and the stars grew brighter. It was so quiet.There was almost no wind-only the flames of our fire for company.As I lay beneath the stars I thought about how far we had already travelled.
We will reach Dali in Yunnan Province soon,where our cousins Dao Wei and Yu Hang will join us.We can hardly wait to see them!
Unit 4 Earthquakes
A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN'T SLEEP
Strange things were happening in the countryside of northeast Hebei.For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell,rose and fell.Farmers noticed that the well walls had deep cracks in them.A smelly gas came out of the cracks.In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervois to eat.Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide.Fish jumped out of their bowls and ponds.At about 3:00 am on july 28,1976,some people saw bright lights in the sky.The sound of planes could be heard outside the city of Tangshan even when no planes were in the sky.In the city,the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.but the one million people of the city,who thiught little of these events,were asleep as usual that night.
At 3:42 am everything began to shake.It seemed as if the world was at an end!Eleven kilometres directly below the city the greatest earthquake of the 20th century had begun.It was felt in Beijing,which is more than two hundred kilometres away.One-third of the nation felt it.A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide cut across houses,roads and canals.Steam burst from holes in the ground.Hard hills of rock became rivers of dir.In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins.The suffering of the people was extreme.Two-thirds of them died or were left without parents.The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400,000.
But how could the survivors believe it was natural?Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.All of the city's hospitals,75%of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone.Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves.No wind,however,could blow them away.Two dams fell and most of the bridges also fell or were not safe for travelling.The railway tracks were now useless pieces of steel.Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again.Half a million oigs and millions of chickens were dead.Sand now filled the wells instead of water.People were shocked.Then,later that afternoon,another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan.Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins.More buildings fell down.Water,food,and electricity were hard to get.people begab to wonder how long the disaster would last.
All hope was not lost.Soon after the quakes,the army sent 150,000 soldiers to Tangshan to help the rescue workers.Hundreds of thousands of people were helped.The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.To the north of the city,most of the 10,000 miners were rescued from the coal mines there.Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.Fresh water was taken to the city bu train,truck and plane.Slowly,the city began to breathe again.
Office of the City Government
Congratulations!We are pleased to tell you that you have won the high school speaking competition about new Tangshan. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges, all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year. Your parents and your school should be very proud of you!
Next month the city will open a new park to honour those who died in the terrible disaster. The park will also honour those who helped the survivors. Our office would like to have you speak to the park vistors on July 28 at 11:00 am. As you know,this is the day the quake happened thirty-____years ago.
We invite you to bring your family and friends on that special day.
My name is Elias. I am a poor black worker in South Africa. The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. I was twelve years old. It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He offered guidance to poor black people on their legal problems. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful.
I needed his help because I had very little education. I began school at six. The school where I studied for only two years was three kilometers away. I had to leave because my family could not continue to pay the school fees and the bus fare. I could not read or write well. After trying hard, I got a job in a gold mine. However, this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. Sadly I did not have it because I was not born there, and I worried about whether I would become out of work.
The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my happiest. He told my how to get the correct papers so I could stay in Johannesburg. I became more hopeful about my future. I never forgot how kind Mandela was. When he organized the ANC Youth League, I joined it as soon as I could. He said:
“The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress,
until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.”
It was the truth. Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. They could not get the jobs they wanted. The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people. The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South Africa. No one could grow food there. In fact as Nelson Mandela said:
“„we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important or fight the government. We chose to attack the laws. We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful; when this was not allowed…only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.
As a matter of fact, I do not like violence…but in 1963 I helped him blow up some government buildings. It was very dangerous because if I was caught I could be put in prison. But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal.
THE REST OF ELIAS' STORY
You cannot imagine how the name of Robben Island made us afraid. It was a prison from which no one escaped. There I spent the hardest time of my life. But when I got there Nelsom Mandela was also there and he helped me. Mr Mandela began a school for those of us who had little learning. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep. We read books under our blankets and used anything we could find to make candles to see the words. I became a good student. I wanted to study for my degree but I was not allowed to do that. Later, Mr Mandela allowed the prison guards to join us. He said they should not be stopped from studying for their degrees. They were not cleverer than me , but they did pass their exams. So I knwe I could get a degree too. That made me feel good about myself.
When I finished the four years in prison, I went to find a job. Since I was better educated, I got a job working in an office. However, the police found out and told my boss that I had been in prinson for blowing up government buildings. So I lost my job. I did not work again for twenty years until M r Mandela and the ANC came to power in 1994. All that time my wife and children had to beg for good and help from relatives or friends. Luckily Mr Mandela remembered me and gave me a job taking tourists around my old prison on Robben Islannd. I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. All the terror and fear of that time came back to me. I remembered the beatings and the cruelty of the guards and my friends who had died. I felt I would not be able to do it, but my family encouraged me. They said that the job and the pay from the new South African government were my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks. So now at 51 I am proud to show visitors over the prison, for I helped to make our people free in their own land.