雾都孤儿论文

【范文精选】雾都孤儿论文

【范文大全】雾都孤儿论文

【专家解析】雾都孤儿论文

【优秀范文】雾都孤儿论文

范文一:雾都孤儿论文 投稿:何總績

《雾都孤儿》中南希的双重性格研究

初等教育学院 小学教育(英语)专业 2010级 彭霞

指导教师 龙娟

摘 要:《雾都孤儿》中的南希是整个故事情节发展中的关键人物,她集善良与罪恶于一身的双重性格也给读者留下了深刻的印象。本文主要通过深入分析南希的凄惨身世,所处的环境等方面,来解读南希的双重性格特点以及这种性格在她的生活和感情等多方面的体现和她这种双重性格形成的原因。

关键词:雾都孤儿;南希;双重性格

Abstract:The key character Nancy in Oliver Twist is between good and evil, and her complex personality impressed many readers. This paper analyzes Nancy’s sad life, living environment and so on to explore her character, its reflection of her life and love life and its cause.

Key words:Oliver Twist; Nancy; dual character

狄更斯是十九世纪英国文坛上一位杰出的批判现实主义的小说家。他本人出生在十九世纪英国的一个贫穷家庭,亲身经历了当时英国社会的生活压迫。在他的大部分作品当中,都充满了对他当时所处的那个英国社会制度时代的不公的强烈批判。揭露腐败和贫穷,讽刺伪善与官僚主义在他的作品中屡见不鲜。《雾都孤儿》是他的早期作品,同时也是他最杰出的作品之一,反映了19世纪初叶英国残酷的社会现实,揭示了无情的吃人剥削的资本主义制度。故事通过围绕出身孤儿的小主人公奥利弗几度身陷以费金为首的扒手魔窟,历经磨难,终于逃离虎口的曲折经历,塑造了几个被迫做贼的青少年的人物形象。南希就是其中一个。小说中的南希并非主要人物,但她却是整个故事情节发展中的关键人物。她的双重性格和悲惨命运更是整个故事的一大看点。

南希是一个矛盾的人物。一方面,她很善良,心存正义。她明白自己所在的扒

手团伙的罪恶,痛恨做扒手,也痛恨团伙里的恶人。她同情奥利弗与自己有相同的遭遇,为了拯救奥利弗,她不惜赌上自己的性命。另一方面,作为一个扒手,在费金的控制下,她犯下了无数的罪行,并忠于扒手团伙组织。南希很小就父母双亡,后由费金收养,从此她别无选择走上了做扒手的道路。尽管成长在扒手团伙中,她善良的人性却一直未曾泯灭,让人不禁心生怜悯。徘徊在善与恶的边缘她,总让读者的心随其跌宕起伏,也让读者更加愿意去研究她那让人难以捉摸的双重性格。双重性格,通常叫做双重人格。从医学上讲,双重人格就是正常人在相同时刻存在两种(或更多)的思维方式,其中,各种思维的运转和决策不受其他思维方式的干扰和影响,完全独立运行。从心理学上讲,双重人格是指一个人具有两个或两个以上的、相对独特的并且相互分开的亚人格。毫无疑问,在《雾都孤儿》这部小说中,南希的种种表现和行为表明,她便是这样拥有双重性格的人。在整部作品当中,南希没有一条非常清楚的界限, 善良与邪恶相溶交织,互作斗争。

一、南希的性格特点表现分析

(一)忠于爱情

爱情在南希生命中占有非常重要的地位,对待爱情她忠贞无悔,将爱情看得比自己的未来、名誉、甚至比生命都还要重要。然而痴情的南希爱上却是无情的赛克斯。当她对赛克斯说,倘若有一天他被判了绞刑,她要在那个地方附近一圈一圈的打转,哪怕地上都是雪,哪怕肩上没有披巾,她也要走到走不动倒下为止。然而赛克斯却是冷漠相对,毫不在意。他们的爱情注定是一场不公平的悲剧的爱情。可尽管赛克斯残暴无情,对南希毫无半分怜爱,甚至经常打骂她。南希却依然守候在赛克斯的身旁,忍受他无情的虐待与打骂,只为坚守她心中的那份爱情。后来,为了拯救奥利弗的生命,她选择背叛她的爱人,尽管她料想到了赛克斯会因此要了她的性命,她却依旧选择回到塞克斯的身边。也许她的内心还抱有一丝希望,希望赛克斯能够顾念往日的情分,不会忍心杀害自己。然而无情的赛克斯

不能忍受背叛。最终南希死在了她深爱多年的赛克斯手下。

南希的爱情太过卑微,也太过不幸。可这份悲凉的爱情却是南希在那个黑暗凄惨生活中的一丝残存的温暖情感与希望,是她精神生活的唯一养料。南希的一生经历了太多的不幸与悲哀,她渴望温暖,期盼幸福。可她生活在那个冷酷黑暗环境中,她的身边没有人能给她温暖与幸福。也许是她太需要一份能够点亮她生活的情感了,于是她为自己编织了一份爱情,即使这份爱情的另一个主人公是赛克斯,她也为之坚守。作为赛克斯的情人,南希与他生活了多年,她深知赛克斯的罪恶,清楚他干过多少伤天害理的事情,也明白赛克斯并不爱自己,只是把她当作赚钱和发泄情欲的工具而已。可她为了坚守心中的爱情,无法离开这个不爱他的男人,将自己的一片痴情都倾注在他的身上,甚至将生命都交付给他。尽管她有机会逃离赛克斯,远离肮脏悲惨的贼窝,去过另一种她渴望却从未有过的生活,但为了爱情,她固执的拒绝了露丝的帮助,毅然回到赛克斯的身旁。为了忠于爱情,她最终付出了生命的代价。南希的决定也许是糊涂的,但毫无疑问,她对爱情的忠贞是值得我们敬佩的。

(二) 行事罪恶

南希从小误入了贼窝,以偷盗和与匪徒们同流合污来谋生,在扒手团队中生活了十多年,做过的坏事不计其数。多年罪孽深重的扒窃生活,已经把她人性的许多磨灭殆尽,她的价值判断力也被扭曲模糊。即使她厌恶罪恶,明白偷窃的行为是罪恶的,但为了生存,迫于压力,她依然会去做。作为费金扒窃团伙中的一员,十几年来她都以偷窃为生,犯下了许多罪行。不仅如此,她还将奥利弗劫持回费金家。奥利弗因为偶然的一次机会离开了费金所在的扒窃团伙,并被好心的布朗劳先生收留。在布朗劳先生家中,奥利弗得到了管家贝德温的精心照顾和布朗劳先生的关爱。这是他出生以来第一次亲身切实感受到来自他人的温暖,如同梦境一般美好,奥利弗十分珍惜。然而此时,赛克斯和费金担心奥利弗会出卖他们,决定将奥利弗带回来。他们将这个任务交给了南希。尽管南希刚开始并不情愿,她也明白自己这样做就是把奥利弗重新带回那个如同地狱般的贼窝,但在赛克斯和费金的软硬兼施下,她还是将奥利弗带了回去。是她亲手打破了奥利弗在

布朗劳先生家的幸福生活,将他带回了费金家。虽然南希的内心同情奥利弗,也后悔自己将奥利弗带回来的行为。但这并不能弥补她所犯下的罪行,也表明了南希行事的罪恶性。

(三) 善对他人

当露丝要求南希做起诉费金的指证人时,她坚定地拒绝了。在她的头脑中,尽管费金残酷无情,尽管他们是一伙贼,但是他们信任她并把她当作他们自己信任的成员,她不忍心伤害他们。她担心他们的安全,不忍亲手将他们送入监狱,被执以绞刑。面对曾经带给她无数伤害的人,她都已仁慈和善良回报。对待奥利弗,南希更是善良。虽然南希在贼团中生活了十多年,但她并未泯灭人性。当奥利弗出现在她面前时,唤起了她内心深处的那份善良。看到奥利弗,南希如同看到了小时候的自己。而她的现在就是奥利弗的将来,她所经历的、承受的一切苦难都将在奥利弗的身上一一重现。回想自己的经历,她不忍奥利弗重蹈自己的覆辙。她同情奥利弗,如同对待亲弟弟一般对待他。当她看到扒手团伙百般折磨奥利弗的时候,她勇敢的冲上前去,把棍子从赛克斯手中夺下来,愤怒的将其扔入火中,使得火花飞溅,烧红的煤渣撒了一地。并大声扬言:这里的人谁再敢欺负折磨奥利弗,我就和谁拼命。南希此刻非常后悔将奥利弗带回贼窝中来。后来,当南希听说受伤后的奥利弗被塞克斯抛弃在漆黑的沟里时,她内心希望奥利弗死在那里。她并非残忍无情,只是不愿奥利弗继续承受自己经历过的苦难,宁可死也不要再受到扒手窝里的折磨。如果今后再也见不到奥利弗,她将非常高兴,因为奥利弗再也不用忍受痛苦与折磨。最后当奥利弗身处险境时,也是南希挺身而出,冒着生命危险帮助他离开扒窃团伙。也正是因为南希,奥利弗找到了自己的亲人,继承了属于自己的财产,他的命运才得以改变。

(四)处事机智

南希虽然年纪轻轻,但她是一个聪明女贼。由于她很小就被迫出去求生存,经历了太多的事情,她已然是一个老练、机灵和训练有素女贼。当她被派去寻找奥利弗的去向时,可谓不辱使命。没有借助金钱,只是乔装成一个失去弟弟的良家妇女,赶到教养院,轻而易举就从一位警察口中得知奥利弗的去向。当费金和赛

克斯得知这一消息,准备将奥利弗抓回来时,南希再次显露了她的机灵。在奥利弗前往书店帮布朗罗先生还书和欠款的途中,南希将他截住并一把抱住他,然后只用几句话就赢得了围观群众的同情,轻轻松松的在众目睽睽之下强行带走了奥利弗,没引起半分怀疑。后来当南希不忍看到奥利弗再受折磨,并决定将他从那个地狱般的地方拯救出来时,又充分展现了她的机智。面对老谋深算的费金和残暴无情的赛克斯,南希冷静应对,机智处理。当蒙克斯(奥利弗同父异母的兄长)与费金密谋怎样对付奥利弗时,南希假装喝醉了酒,偷听他们的秘密谈话。并寻找机会,悄悄从护壁板上过去,将秘密消息送出去。这样的胆识与智慧令人钦佩。在她巧妙地把赛克斯灌醉之后,她马上找到了露丝小姐,并将秘密告诉了她,希望借由她的力量去保护和解救身处困境的奥利弗。南希从小在黑暗的社会中挣扎求生,作为一名扒手,每天要接触各种各样的人,她只有学会如何应对身边各样的人和事,巧妙地与之周旋,才能求得生存。

二、南希的双重性格形成原因分析

(一)凄惨身世

相比奥利弗,南希的身世更为悲惨。在南希很小的时候,父母就离开了她的身边。失去父母的她,在饥寒交迫中痛苦挣扎,艰难求生。在南希4、5岁时候,她遇见了费金。然而费金是一个专门以训练儿童为小偷的贼首。迫于生存,在费金的训练下,小小年纪的她成为了一名扒手。没有选择自己命运的权力,每天她都被费金赶到街上去偷东西,敢有不从,就要受皮肉之苦。从此,她走上了犯罪的道路。长大后,她又被一个野蛮粗俗的强盗赛克斯买下,做他的情妇。赛克斯残暴无情,南希在他手里受尽屈辱与折磨。南希的一生中,从未得到关心与疼爱,她的命运也从未掌握在自己手里。这样的生活经历,让南希学会了屈从与逆来顺受。并且她忠诚于费金的犯罪团伙,也忠诚于她的情人赛克斯。她南希凄惨的身世确定了她性格的走向。

(二)生活环境

环境能够塑造人的性格,南希的性格特点与她生活的环境是息息相关的。南希走上犯罪的道路,不是她与生俱来的罪恶品性,而是她生活的环境影响的结果。南希生活在资本主义社会的最底层,终日与扒手盗贼为伍,以寒冷、潮湿、肮脏的街道为家。社会环境的无情、肮脏和黑暗让她忍受饥饿和寒冷。残酷的资本主义制度下,只有剥削与压榨,没有人关心弱者的生存。这样的社会环境让南希无从选择职业与生存方式,也形成了她性格的劣根性。而她的身边没有父母与亲人。在她最需要关爱与教育的时刻,没有人能给她正确的人生指导。费金可算是南希的“启蒙者”。作为一个贪婪、自私和邪恶的训练小孩做扒手的魔鬼,他教会了南希如何以一名扒手生存,如何抛弃良知,藐视法律。毫无疑问,他成功地将南希培养成了一名罪犯。在南希身边还有以扒窃为生存技能的扒手们和以偷盗为生的她的情人赛克斯。他们都是丑陋邪恶的人。扒手们不以偷扒窃为耻,反而视之为一种乐趣,一种正大光明的求生手段。甚至谁偷的东西越值钱,他就越值得尊敬。赛克斯更是一个穷凶极恶的盗贼。这样的一群人,他们的价值观念中没有道德,没有正义,更没有善良。有的只是如何非法的获取更多的财富。并且在他们眼中,这样的手段是正确的,甚至是很合理的。在这样一个充满邪恶与犯罪的环境中,尽管南希并没有完全泯灭自己的良知,但她的价值判断力已经被彻底模糊。这样环境形成了南希罪恶的性格。

(三)本质善良

人之初,性本善。南希性格中有罪恶的一面,但这不是她与生俱来的。我们相信人的本质是善良的,南希也是。只是长年生活在扒手团伙中,经历了悲惨黑暗的生活,让她善良的品质被一点点的被磨灭。尽管她的生活充满罪恶,她却从未抛弃心中的善良。当她看到纯真善良的奥利弗落入费金手里时,那似曾相识的场景彻底唤起了她内心尚未完全泯灭的良知。她十分清楚如果奥利弗留在贼窝,那他注定会和自己一样迫于生存沦为扒手,走上一条犯罪的不归路。她厌恶这一切,虽然不敢与扒手团伙作斗争,但她无法眼睁睁的看到自己的悲剧重新上演,她深知自己命运的悲苦,不愿有人和她遭受同样的痛苦。为了遵从自己内心的善良,她不顾一切,与扒手团伙斗智斗勇,最终将奥利弗成功解救。而她却为此献

出了自己宝贵的生命。

(四)矛盾心理

南希有着无比丰富且充满矛盾的内心世界。虽然从小生活在罪恶的扒手团伙中,但她知道是非善恶,明白扒窃行为是不正确的,她憎恨费金一伙人,也憎恨自己的扒手身份。可为了自己的生存,她依旧从事这份工作,做了很多罪恶的事。尽管她渴望一分光明的工作,过正常的生活,但当露丝给她机会时,她却拒绝了,甘愿回到扒手团伙中继续做一个扒手。她同情奥利弗的遭遇,内心很想帮助他。但也正是她去打听奥利弗的下落并将他带回费金身边。在南希的内心深处,她已经意识到了自己的行为是罪恶的,但她无法摆脱自己身处的环境,只能通过继续从事恶行来获得生存的条件。她知道自己只是费金的一个赚钱的工具,也憎恨费金的所作所为,但她却不愿指证费金。尽管她看透了扒手团伙中一切丑陋行径,也厌恶他们的残暴无情,灭绝人性,但她又舍不得离开扒手团伙。她的情人赛克斯为人凶狠残暴,冷酷无情,她也明白赛克斯心里并不在乎她,可她却离不开他。虽然南希心存善良,但她无法摆脱自己扒手的身份,无法远离罪恶。南希这种矛盾交织的心理形成了她的双重性格。

三、结语

通过研究南希的双重性格,可以看出,狄更斯在描写南希双重性格的同时,也表达了他对英国无情吃人的资本主义制度的强烈的批判和不满。同时,通过对南希双重性格的研究,有助于读者更好的理解小说刻画出来的人物特性,有助于读者更好的理解人物徘徊在善与恶之间矛盾的内心,并从而认识她所处的那个社会的真实面目。其实,南希的双重性格反映了现实生活中人性善与恶的碰撞。从古至今,人性都不是单一的,人们的内心或多或少总是矛盾交织的。而南希鲜明的双重性格,正是现实生活中人性的一个真实写照。

参考文献:

[1] [英]查尔斯·狄更斯.《雾都孤儿》[M].盛世教育西方名著翻译委员会译.上海:上海世界图书出版公司,2011.

[2] 刘精香.《雾都孤儿》中南希形象剖析[J].中南民族学院学报(哲学社会科学版),1999(03):104-106.

[3] 王晓燕.读《雾都孤儿》解析南希形象特征[J]. 语文建设,2013(23):40-41.

[4] 赵世芬.《雾都孤儿》中的南希形象剖析[J]. 天津职业院校联合学报,2011,13(6):106-108

[5] 顾元华.《雾都孤儿》南希的命运探析[J].南昌教育学院学报,2011,26(10):26-27

[6] 冯涛.《雾都孤儿》中南希形象解读[J].文学教育,2013(5):22

[7] 张蔚.《雾都孤儿》中南希的双重性格分析[J].文教资料,2010(32):10-11

[8] 游佳.《雾都孤儿》中南希形象解析[J].浙江旅游职业学院学报,2013,9(3):50-53

[9] 王赛梅.解读《雾都孤儿》中南希的形象与性格[J].作家杂志,2013(8):149-150

[10] 苗旸.《雾都孤儿》中的人物分析[J].考试周刊,2010(12):30-31

范文二:雾都孤儿小论文 投稿:高憺憻

雾都孤儿小论文

众所周知,狄更斯是十九世纪英国著名的小说家,他在英国文学史上享有非凡的胜誉。他是他所处的那个时代的犀利的社会批评家。«雾都孤儿»是他的代表作之一。

«雾都孤儿»中南希这个人物有无比丰富复杂的内心世界,又是一个矛盾的集合体,她兼有了善良与邪恶,美德与丑陋,正是这种矛盾的性格给她带来了不幸。在这部小说中,她是一位悲惨的可怜的人物,是伤感的典型代表。她是一个失去父母双亲的孩子,被费金收留后并从此迫使成为了小偷。后来,在她长大成人之后,她又被转手给了赛克斯这样一个野蛮粗俗的强盗做了情妇。她的整个一生,都被牢牢地攥在这些男人手中。

尽管在这部小说中南希不是主要人物,但是她却扮演了一个关键的角色。她和我们的英雄主人公—奥利佛的命运息息相关。奥利佛的最终获救都要归功于她的行动:送信给露丝并且与露丝和布朗罗会面。另一方面,她又是邪恶团伙当中的一员,并忠于她的组织。在贯穿整部小说的过程当中,她都没有一条清楚的界线。她那身份和性格的复杂性使得她形成了独一无二的个性特。

尽管南希下手参与了绑架奥利佛,但是她对奥利佛示以同情并尽其所能来保护他:

对于奥利佛,她是绑架奥利佛犯罪集团的主要同谋。在街上截获并劫持了奥利佛,然后把他带回到了洞穴里。从某种程度上来说,正是南希又把奥利佛送到了抢劫犯的手中。费金正是通过南希的帮助才重新得到了奥利佛,从此奥利佛的悲惨生活从新开始了。然而,在把奥利佛带回到费金的住处之后,她又竭尽所能地来保护他。因为奥利佛想逃跑,所以费金就用一根棍棒来鞭打他,这时南希就象一个姐姐那样,她毫不顾及她自己的安危来保护着奥利佛,因为看到他,她就仿佛看到了他那个年纪的自己。南希有一个营救奥利佛的好的愿望想法,但是她又始终报有对邪恶团伙的忠诚,她所做的一切都是为了保证奥利佛的安全——当他被坏蛋虐待的时候做他的保护神,窃听孟可司和费金之间的谈话,拜访露丝,与露丝和布朗罗会面。在她的头脑中,尽管他们是一伙贼,但是他们信任她并将她当作他们自己信任的成员。她不忍心看着他们被抓住。

对于赛克斯,尽管她知道赛克斯是一个冷血的坏脾气的恶棍,但是她仍然缺乏离开他的勇气,并自始至终地回到他的身边。赛克斯不止一次地虐待南希,把她看作是一个奴仆。只要他心情不好或者是对这个女孩子稍有不满的话,他就会随心所欲地辱骂和虐待她。甚至当他生病时南希在照顾他的时候,他仍然不忘诅咒这个女孩。尽管她从赛克斯那里得到的是不堪忍受的虐待,但是她仍然顽固地追随着他。为了这个暴徒,她拒绝了露丝指引给她走上

一个崭新生活的建议。她告诉露丝在那个时候她不能离开他,她顽固地坚守她对恶棍团伙的忠心,尤其是对那个虐待她的男人。在她的心目中,她把她所回去的地方当作“一个家”, 我们实在是怜其不幸而同时又为她的糊涂的头脑感到非常气愤。她对于自己的命运却是悲观失望和不自信的,她放弃了她自己。没有一滴对新生活的希望之火花能够点燃她那黑暗的心灵。面对露丝和布朗罗的几次的劝说,她一次又一次地选择了逃避。因为她总是认为她的改过自新已为时已晚。他们两人关系很微妙,南茜离不开赛克斯,宁愿被他杀害也不肯抛弃他;而赛克斯也离不开南茜,一旦失去她,他就丧魂失魄,终于在房顶跌落,脖子被自己的一条绳子的活扣套住而气绝身死。

对于造成南希悲惨的命运的原因有两个方面,外因和内因。

外因,南茜是一个无父无母的孤儿,那时她为了生活没有别的选择只有做贼。这就是许许多多像她一样无家可归的孩子不可避免的遭遇。这并不是他们的错,那是社会环境逼得他们成为了社会的糟粕,那是由于政府的腐败和作者想揭露批判的统治阶级的错误。

内因,她的劣等级的意识使得她缺乏离开那个坏蛋的勇气在南茜的眼里,露丝是一个纯洁的、优雅的女士。她有着高贵的出身和地位,从她的童年时代起就有那么多的亲人关心她,她无须担心她的生计,她从来都不会遭受饥饿和寒冷的侵袭。这尤其反映在当她和露丝.梅莱这个漂亮、苗条的年轻女孩在一齐的时候。在和她有着相仿年纪的如此一个可爱的女孩面前,她感到无比的卑贱。在这个女孩的头脑中,有一种根深蒂固的观念:毕竟,黑色就是黑色,邪恶就是邪恶,把黑色变成白色和把邪恶成为美德都是不可能的。她对她自己没有任何的自信心。如果说是社会的错使得她在年幼时为了活命而做贼的话;那么也可以说是她自己的错,因为当一个走上新生活的良机摆在她面前时,她却拒绝了。她们愿意继续和他们呆在一起,追随着他们,把自己的一生和他们系在一起,把自己的命运交到她们所爱的男人手中,对他们过度的依赖。

尽管是一个悲哀的结局,但是南茜在读者的眼中却是一个值得同情的可怜的形象,并且在他们的脑海中留下了深刻的印象。

范文三:[优秀作文]雾都孤儿 投稿:江锟锠

妈妈

书里描述的蓝天

是否存在这世界

白天黑夜有什么区别

灰和黑更迭

爸妈你们离开那一天

我眼泪都看不见

或许只有住在梦里边

才看得清容颜

我努力睁开眼却看不到终点

怎对酸雨眷恋

诗人不再望天

这世界没了花瓣飘落的诗篇

烟雾笼罩谎言

欲望化作梦魇

城市的雕塑望眼欲穿对天边

老照片蓝天

仿佛闻得见这微甜

全世界是乐园

我用画笔临摹曾经起风的季节

却画不出明天

妈妈

书里描述的蓝天

是否存在这世界

白天黑夜有什么区别

灰和黑更迭

爸妈你们离开那一天

我眼泪都看不见

或许只有住在梦里边

才看得清容颜

我努力睁开眼却看不到终点

怎对酸雨眷恋

诗人不再望天

这世界没了花瓣飘落的诗篇

烟雾笼罩谎言

欲望化作梦魇

城市的雕塑望眼欲穿对天边

老照片蓝天

仿佛闻得见这微甜

全世界是乐园

我用画笔临摹曾经起风的季节

却画不出明天

怎对酸雨眷恋

诗人不再望天

这世界没了花瓣飘落的诗篇

烟雾笼罩谎言

欲望化作梦魇

城市的雕塑望眼欲穿对天边

老照片蓝天

仿佛闻得见这微甜

全世界是乐园

我用画笔临摹曾经起风的季节

却画不出明天

范文四:作文:读《雾都孤儿》有感 投稿:何近迒

这本书是我的朋友,希望将它推荐给你,你能有所收获。——题记  

  《雾都孤儿》是一本世界名著,讲述了一个发生在十九世纪的感人之事。  

故事的主人公奥立弗·推斯特,出生在一个济贫院,因出生后母亲的逝去而成了孤儿。十岁那年的他被苏尔伯雷给带到了一家棺材店当学徒,由于不堪忍受老板娘与师兄的欺压,独自来到了伦敦,却落入了贼帮手里,因为他的善良,得到人们的帮助,从而让这个孤儿从逆境中胜出,他神秘的身世也真相大白。  

这个故事里,有两个情节很让我感动:一是小奥立弗在棺铺学习时,因为对老板说请求加饭,而被给予了每天都被鞭子抽的“荣誉”。请求加一点饭都不能,那根本就是没人性的表现!二是小奥立弗走了七天七夜到达伦敦,在碰到小偷杰克后努力想办法逃出贼窝,因为他不想被训练成小偷,后来他在一次审判中被冤枉,但布朗罗先生解救了他,并让他好好生活。读到这,我的眼角湿了,奥立弗多么善良呀!他宁愿挨饿也不当小偷,精神真可贵!  

读完全书,我久久不能平静:弱小的奥立弗,在饥饿,悲伤,孤独等痛苦所压迫时,仍然保持着内心的坚强,维护自尊,他真的是拥有强大意志力的人啊!  

我们多数人从小就生活在蜜罐里,没体验过被人欺凌,失去自尊的感觉,凌驾于自己世界里的他人之上,衣来伸手,饭来张口,所有的事都安排好了。殊不知,这压迫了我们的自理能力,领导能力等。对于受难者,我们也应帮助,否则这个社会没了爱,就无法推动进步。  

在此,我要再次推荐这本书——《雾都孤儿》!

范文五:雾都孤儿英语论文 投稿:段筛筜

Character analysis of Nancy in Oliver Twist

班级:Class 1

姓名:项久桐

Introduction.

Charles Dickens, he is the most popular English novelist of the Victorian era. He writes many famous works. Oliver Twist is one of them. In this novel, Dickens presents the everyday existence of the lowest members of England society. During that period, Enclosure Movement and poor laws makes the situation more difficult.

This paper mainly focuses on the analysis of Nancy. She is one of the characters in Oliver Twist. From her, we can find double characters. She is a distinctively contradictory person. It truly shows us the miserable life of the London at that time by Nancy’s fatality. Through analyzing the causes of Nancy’s character, we could perspective the decadence and sunless of the whole British social political system. We could learn that London is filled with unfairness and oppress the poor. It is this kind of society system and her nature that killed Nancy finally. Even if Nancy is not the main character of the novel, but she is the key character. Many readers are influenced by her complex and tragic life. Her existence lets us think about a lot of things. What is good? What is evil? Through her change, we can get the writing aim of the novel. As if everybody gives a little love, this world would become more colorful and sweet. Ⅰ. Analysis of Nancy’s double character.

A. Nancy’s negative nature

Nancy is a typical character of the novel. Oliver Twist’s fate is closely related with Nancy. Nancy as a thief lives in the bottom of the society. That kind of environment rubs down her self-esteem and the sense of shame. Just because of this, she tries everything to protect her group and has no courage to expose the criminal gang. What she receives forms her negative and screwy world outlook, value, and view of life. As you brew, so must you drunk. Nancy hurts others and herself both.

1. The protection of thieves.

Nancy is a thief. And she thinks she is one part of the group with time passing. When Nancy decides to help Oliver get out of Monk’s trap, she also expresses the protection of the

theft gang by saying she will not betray her companions. We all know she is an adult, and she has ability to report their crime to the police, while she doesn’t. This kind of way of thinking may cause public confusion. The public will think the action is right, which is personal loyalty and responsibility. There is no doubt that will cause negative influence to the social environment. It is the indifferent humanity that leads more and more children like Oliver gets hurt by bad guys.

2. The kidnap of Oliver Twist.

When it comes to Oliver’s miserable life, Nancy is the chief culprit. Oliver ever got out of that group because of some reasons. Fagin and Skies ask Nancy to inquire about information about Oliver. It is Nancy that kidnaps Oliver again and brings Oliver painful experience. Nancy relays on her outstanding acting and tactful communication skills cheat many people. “He is my brother. He runs away from home. I worry about him.” In fact, this kind people are very hateful, because they say in this way and do in that way.

3. The negative attitudes to her own life.

Nancy’s job is a thief. Although she doesn’t want anyone to know her job and does something to cover the truth, she does the job till to her death. It is well-known to everyone, “The poor person must be utterly detestable.” She can change her job even her life if she wants. However, she wouldn’t like to walk forward. In my opinion, she is very negative. Maybe she thinks from her born, she is a foundling. From she became, she began to do bad things. Even so, anybody should have a chance to correct his or her fault. It is she gives herself rather than the society destroyed her indeed. In her life, there is no sparkle to fire her dark heart. Facing Lucy and Mr. Brownlow persuasion, she escapes again and again. Lucy says to her, “It is never too late for penitence and atonement.” But Nancy is too stubborn to understand the meaning. When Mr. Brownlow wants to give her an offer, she answers, “Nothing. You can do nothing to help me. I am past all hope, indeed.” To err is human. If you know you are wrong, you should correct it right now instead of giving up yourself.

B. Nancy’s positive nature.

A completely bad person can’t arouse people’s introspection. Charles’ unique writing

gives the role of Nancy more emotions. From her, we could see some shining points. Chinese Confucianism says that all human are born with good nature. Nancy sometimes is good. We could feel her innocence, sympathy, faithfulness, kind, and etc when we are reading the novel. The part that Nancy tries to save Oliver can clearly reflect Nancy’s positive nature. Moreover, Nancy is Skies’ lover. Nancy is always faithful to love like an innocent girl.

1. The action of saving Oliver Twist.

Nancy’s good nature mainly embodies in her protection of the little Oliver. When Oliver first came to the Fagin’s room, Nancy sat besides Oliver like a bag sister, and taught him how to play cards patiently. Among the theft gang, readers an feel Nancy is a good girl. When Oliver is caught back to the dark room again, Skies lets his dog to bite Oliver at once. At the same time, Nancy shuts the door immediately and shouts to Skies, “Keep back the dog, Bill.” “The child shan’t be torn by the dog, unless you kill me first.” These words show Nancy is kind and sympathy from the bottom of her heart. Then Oliver’s kind and clean heart stimulated Nancy’s positive energy. Nancy risks her life to help Oliver. She tries to cheat Fagin and Bill to inform Mr. Brownlow that Oliver is in danger. Her character represents Dickens’ view that man, however tainted by society, could still retain a sense of good.

2. The faithfulness to love.

Nancy is an orphan. When she grows up, she is sold to Skies as his lover. Her whole life is under the charge of Skies. Poor Nancy thinks that is love. Since long time, Nancy is getting used to living with Skies, and she treats that dirty house as her home. Nancy is willing to do anything for Skies. When Skies gets a cold, Nancy takes care of him. I think that is called love. Maybe the love between them even only Nancy values is sick, but love is precious and innocent. When Nancy exposes their crime, she covers Bill’s name. She says that she never betray him. When Mr. Brownlow promises her money and arrival to other place, she refuses because of Skies. Moreover, from the initial “N” and “S”, we could learn that they are not only contradictory but also rely on each other. From this point, Nancy’s fate is doomed to be destroyed by Skies. But Nancy is glad to end her life in Skies’ hands. Nancy’s faithfulness to love is worth learning to most young people. Nowadays young people are not serious to their

love, which is chameleonic.

3. Innocence, sympathy of her deep nature.

Dickens first describes Nancy from Oliver’s point of view. She is not exactly pretty but she shares a great deal of color in her face, and looks quite stout and hearty. These description shows that Nancy is a good girl. When Fagin asks Jack to monitor Nancy, Jack refuses at first and says, “Nancy is kind to us.” From others’ perspectives, we could learn about that Nancy is a not bad person indeed. Her nature is doomed that she will change from evil to good. Ⅱ. The reasons of Nancy’s tragic ending.

A. The social reasons.

Environment is very important to a person’s growth. Usually, a good environment shapes many good-manner people. The same reason, in a bad environment, people have to change themselves for survival. Nancy is this kind of person. She is a not bad girl in nature. Because of social reasons, she has to do bad things for making a living. Under the influence of the strict hierarchy, Nancy eventually can not escape the bad luck.

1. The poor and chaotic society environment.

The middle of 19th century was the beginning of Victorian. The whole British society was faced with economic rapid growth and serious social problems, going through earthshaking changes from industrial revolution. Enclosure Movement and poor laws make the situation more difficult. Britain which at one time was named “world factory” accumulated enormous wealth by developing market and exploiting colony. At that time, money worship and utilitarianism were widely accepted. Nancy is an orphan. The workhouse at that time is almost the same as the criminal gang. Moreover, the police and court is no great use. Indeed, there are not authorities to protect Nancy.

2. The family background.

We have no right to decide our family background. So does Nancy. In Britain, people pay more attention to a person’s family background. Hierarchy and feudalism is very serious at that time. The meeting of Rose and Nancy represents that two girls hold the same purity and goodness. It is not Nancy’s choice to have the miserable life. Nancy’s parentless background

and living style also determined her tragic ending. Nancy says to Rose, “That you and friends to care for and keep you in childhood, and that you were never in the midst of cold and hunger, and riot and drunkenness.” Nancy’s words implies that it is unavoidable fate is on Nancy’s life.

B. Inner reasons.

The main reason causes Nancy’s tragic ending is her own. When there is no one to help you, and the environment is not good for you, you should save yourself. We can only live once and we should live for ourselves. Of course, there are many things that we should care about and we can sacrifice ourselves to protect. While Nancy, she is stubborn, and love the fault person. It can be said, Nancy’s fault insistence destroys her.

1. The shortage of courage of changing herself.

Nancy’s inferior consciousness makes her lack courage to change herself. When she meets Rose, she is very self-abased. Rose is a graceful and beautiful lady. Rose has many friends and relatives. Rose lives in love. All above things that is Nancy dreams of, which she has nothing. She feels her life is done and she has no courage and chance to live in Rose’s way. Nancy lives in slum while she describes that dirty place as her cradle. That’s because Nancy lives there for a long time, and she regards slum as her end result. Her inferior feeling and indecision hold up her step.

2. The shortage of insight and judge to male.

Nancy’s whole life from her young to death is held by bad males. These kinds of girls like Nancy are very common in modern world. It is Nancy is lack of perceivable ability that causes her miserable life. Nancy’s mediocre sense, especially expressing in the aspects of love, dominates her. Because of her innocence and kind, bad male usually dally with her emotions and body. When Nancy finds out his bad nature, she still tolerates him. Moreover, she becomes rely on him. This is spoony and stupid woman.

Conclusion.

In Oliver Twist, it tells about the argument of moral and noble is black or white. But Nancy’s character indicates that virtue and evil are not distinguish clearly. In author’s words,

“It involves the best and worst shades of our nature; much of its ugliest hues, and something of its most beautiful; it is a contradiction, an anomaly, an apparent impossibility, but it is truth.” Although Nancy is a tragic ending, she makes impressive influence on readers. Oliver Twist praised the basic goodness of people through description Nancy. Dickens wants to express the call of goodness. It is also significant for the modern society. With the rapid development of science and technology, the situation today is more complex than 19th Britain. Most people are crazy about material benefits. This novel alerts us not let the tragedy repeat.

范文六:黄帅090205雾都孤儿论文 投稿:汪稛稜

英美文学课程论文

论文题目:奥利弗的人物性格分析

学生姓名: 黄 帅

学 号: 0903090205

班 级: 英语0902班

完成日期:2010年11月23日

奥利弗·退斯特的人物性格分析

By

Huang Shuai

CLASS: 0902

Foreign Languages Department

Xi’an University of Finance & Economics

Nov. 2011

Characters analysis of Oliver Twist

Abstract

Charles Dickens (1812-1870) was a prominent novelist of 19th in British.Oliver Twist is one of his masterpieces.This book mainly describes the misery of little Oliver.He meet with various people,some of them are very good people,and always help him and treat him well,however some of them are bad people.They not only treat him bad but also involve him into crime.During that time,Oliver shows many different kinds of characters,such as kindness innocence bravery.This paper which is divided into some parts mainly introduces the characters of Oliver.In the first part, it mainly introduces the brief of this book and the author and also the relationship between the author and the book.Then lead to the theme-the characters of Oliver Twist.In the second part,it based on the biggest character of Oliver:kindness.In this part,Oliver shows his kindness to the people who either treat him good or bad,such as Fagin ,Many,Mr.Brownlow, the poor and so on. And it forms the bright contrast with that society.In the third part,it concentrates on the innocence of Oliver.Because of this character he can escape from the disaster many times, but it is the character that he easily gets into trouble.Anyhow,it is much valuable for him to possess this character especially under that circumstance.Oliver posses not only kindness and innocence but also bravery that as a man should have.So in the fourth part,it analyses the bravery which he has.It can show from some scenes .Finally, it is the conclusion of this paper, and reiterates the characters of Oliver,also makes it clearly that we should learn from him.

Key words: Oliver, kindness, innocence, bravery

奥利弗的人物性格分析

内 容 摘 要

查尔斯·狄更斯(1812-1870)是十九世纪英国一位杰出的小说作家.奥利弗退斯特是他的巨著之中的一部。这本书讲述了小主人公奥利弗的悲惨遭遇,他遇到了各种各样的人,他们当中有真心实意帮助奥利弗的好人,也有企图陷害奥利弗并想使他犯罪的坏人。在和这些人的交往中,奥利弗表现出来了不同的性格特点,有善良和天真,也有诚实和勇敢。这篇论文的主要目的就是介绍奥利弗的性格特点,主要从以下几个部分别来讲述。第一部分简单的介绍和概括这本书,并对查尔斯狄更斯本人以及他和真本书做出简介,并进一步的引出主题—奥利弗的性格特点。第二部分主要从奥利弗性格之中最大的特点善良为角度,分析奥利弗对费金,南希,比尔,布朗罗,露西还有穷人的态度,来充分表现出奥利弗的善良品质,并与当时的社会形成鲜明的对比。第三部分主要讲述了奥利弗的天真,这可以说是他的第二大性格特点。本章也是从奥利弗对待周围的人和事中总结分析出来的。这种天真的性格不仅让奥利弗逃过了劫难,但是也曾让他陷入困境。不管怎么说这种性格在当时的社会背景下是难能可贵的。奥利弗不仅善良,天真而且他还展现出来了作为一个男子汉应有的勇敢。第四部分就对他的勇敢做出了分析。当奥利弗敢于提出在要一份食物时,当奥利弗不惧艰难徒步去伦敦时,这些都鲜明的表现出了奥利弗的勇敢性格。最后一部分是对这篇论文的总结,重申了奥利弗的性格特点,并与当时的社会背景以及其他人做比较,突出了奥利弗值得我们学习的优秀品质。

关键词:奥利弗 善良 天真 勇敢

Contents

1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction of Charles Dickens .................................................................................. 1

1.2 Introduction of Oliver Twist ........................................................................................ 1

2. Oliver's kindness ................................................................................................................... 2

2.1 Oliver's kindness to the Poor ....................................................................................... 2

2.2 Oliver's kindness to the thieves ................................................................................... 3

2.3 Oliver's kindness to Nancy .......................................................................................... 4

2.4 Oliver's kindness to companion ................................................................................... 4

3. Oliver's innocence ................................................................................................................ 5

4. Oliver's honesty .................................................................................................................... 6

5. Oliver's bravery .................................................................................................................... 7

6. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 8

Reference .................................................................................................................................. 8

Characters of Oliver Twist

1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction of Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens was the prominent novelist of 19th in British.He was born on february7,1812, in portsea,England.His parents were middle-class,but they suffered financially as a result of living beyond their means.At 11 years old, as his father was in debt, the family was put in a debt prison. Forced by the plight, he had become a child labor in a boot and shoe cream workshop.The miserable experience in his young mind left psychic trauma,not only his deep concern and sympathy for the unfortunate children, and prompted him to struggle to escape poverty. As a young adult, he worked as a law clerk and later as a journalist. His experience as a journalist kept him in close contact with the darker social conditions of the Industrial Revolution, and he grew disillusioned with the attempts of lawmakers to alleviate those conditions.These painful experience is the book origin of the Oliver Twist.In Oliver Twist, Dickens presents the everyday existence of the lowest member of English society. He goes far beyond the experiences of poverty to London's squalid streets, dark alehouse, and thieves' dens. He gives voice to those who had no voice, establishing a link with his social commentary.

1.2 Introduction of Oliver Twist

Oliver Twist was Dickens' second novel, which marked the beginning of Dickens' literary life. It concentrates on the hard years of an orphan, Oliver Twist, who was against the criminal world of London. It is the first novel that readers are led to a very sad world. The hero of this novel was Oliver Twist, an orphan, while reading the tragic experiences of the little Oliver; he was thrown into a world full of poverty and crime. He suffered big pain, such as hunger, thirst,beating; I was shocked by his sufferings.I felt sorry for the poor boy, but at the same time I detested the evil Fagin and brutal Bill. To my relief, as was written in all the best stories, the goodness eventually conquered evil and Oliver lived a happy life at the end. One of the plots that attracted me most is that after the beery,little Oliver was allowed to recover in the kind care of Mrs.Maylie and Rose, and began a new life. He went for walks with them, or Rose read to him and he worked hard at his lessons. He felt as if he had left behind forever world of crime and hardship and poverty.

Dickens has made a child the center of his novel, and through what has happened to the boy, is trying to show the readers a true picture of the real life of the common people in the 19th England. About this book, he once said,

Born and brought up in the terrible workhouse, little Oliver was expelled for asking for more food. He then fell into the Fagin's gang and became part of the criminal underworld where he learned how to acquire the art of survival in a pitiless world. The story is a realistic picture, as well a bitter indictment, of a hypocritical society in which poverty reduces the human spirit.

2. Oliver's kindness

2.1 Oliver's kindness to the Poor

In the life of his working in the coffin shop, he expressed the sympathy to the poor who were more misfortune than him. For example,

was his job, it is his responsibility to the woman's bury that he even be late for and all people were awaiting for him. I think the reason that his late was the buried woman was poor very much. He could not get enough money from her family, so

2.2 Oliver's kindness to the thieves

After Oliver joined the Fagin's gang, Oliver's the first time to steal others was companied by Bet and Charly Beats. However Oliver did not to do that something.Unfortunately, Oliver was arrested by police and the other two people ran away. During the way back to the police,Oliver did not tell anybody that he was not the thief and where the real thief was now. Maybe someone will say that Oliver is a stupid,and why not to tell them who were the real thief. That is the strong reason that Oliver is very kind to the thieves.Remember this scene, when Oliver is awake to see Fagin's watches which he hid. Fagin said to him:

The next person Oliver was kind to him is Monks.As we all know, Monks was Oliver's half brother but Monks treats him bad. Monks wanted to hold all the inheritance ,so he tried to kill him. For once, after Monks listened to Fagin's plan for a while, angry very much, he said

word, all the money should have gone to Oliver alone, but as the kindness of Oliver, Oliver gave the other half money to Monks and what is more, Oliver was glad to accept it. How kind a boy. Living in the modern society, most of us have a kind heart since our kind environment. However, we can not meet with Oliver I think because our toleration is limited, if someone treats like that, we usually can not pardon Monks. The society which Oliver lives was dark, miserable, criminal, mostly of the people live in poor, many workhouses hypocritical and cruelty of parish, living in that atmosphere, Oliver also kept a heart which was more kind than our. His kindness to Monks showed his wide bosom, and the love to half brother. No matter how had those Monks to him.

2.3 Oliver's kindness to Nancy

Maybe many people will ask that Nancy is the benefactor of Oliver, I admit that if not Nancy , Oliver maybe chased by Fagin or Monks. But we should not forget that Nancy played an important role in Oliver's arrested.We know that at the first when Oliver was rescued from Fagin by Mr. Brownlow, Oliver lived a happy life under Mr. Brownow's care. But unfortunately, it because Nancy that changed Oliver's happy life. when Oliver sent the books to the shopkeeper, Nancy found him and arrested him ,then sent him to Fagin's place.

2.4 Oliver's kindness to companion

No matter how good or bad position Oliver was in, he never forget and was always thinking about his good friend --Dick. When he escaped from coffin shop, he went to see Dick.

he heard the death of Dick. As we know , Oliver was an orphan, he was so miserable, however, he always remembered his friend, that is so valuable. He wanted his friend live with him for a better live. That is Oliver, that is his kindness to his friend.

3. Oliver's innocence

Oliver was not only kind but also innocent. His innocence showed in many aspects at first. When Oliver was with the thief, he was more innocent than ever. For example, at first, he arrived in London with no money, and there was no one who he knew. Doger 'help' him and introduce Fagin to him

Could they let Oliver go? The answer of course are no. We could say that if in the last example innocence made him escape from being killing. It made him foolish in the example. So if he was not innocent, he would not say those sentences.

In all words, Oliver's innocence is big character, his innocence makes him involve in crime, but at the same time, it makes him safety. In general, whether the innocence is a good character of a man, it depends on how you use it and when it happens, just like Oliver, the innocence takes good lucky at some time, but it makes him in bad situation, too. This also can be used to the present society. As we know there are more and more crimes happen in our society, what is the reason for this? I think it mostly because of many people's innocence, because their innocence makes them foolish and have faith somebody easily who use some deceitful tricks which make many false appearances, in that time, the innocence is a bad thing. However, at some time, we need it, it can also make our relaxed, because the life in the society is so nervous and the rhyme of it is very fast. So, if we use it properly, the innocence will take an important correct role in our life.

4. Oliver's honesty

The honesty also play an important role in Oliver's life through the story. Oliver has so many good characters that can be studied by us. The honesty is one of them. As we know, in the story, Oliver's benefactor -Mr. Brownow , who gave many aids to him is one of important role. He helps Oliver lived a happy life finally. If without him, Oliver may have lost in Fagin. However, they are all wined by Oliver's kindness and honesty. Let us have a look at about it. Oliver had a dramatic meet with Mr. Brownlow, and Oliver was changed by Mr. Brownlow falsely, but this time it was not a bad thing, it made Oliver a shortly happily life with Mr. Brownlow, but this life was interrupted. At one day Mr. Brownlow wanted to return some books to the bookseller, and to send five pounds for buying new books which held by him for someday. He let Oliver to do it. And Oliver promised delighted that he could do the thing very well. As we know, Oliver was poor, he needed money, but he did not take the money because of his honesty and he said to Mr.Brownlow

remembered that he must send the books back to Brownlow, he just wanted to convince that he was not a deceiver, he was honest, although that things could not be sent back, it also could convince Oliver's honesty. Are there any people can do like that? Especially Oliver was a poor boy, he lived in that society which was full of criminals. But he also can keep an honest, that is so valuable. When Oliver lived a happy life with rose and Mr. Brownlow, not only because of Mr. Brownlow's benefit to him but those books and money, he did not want Mr. Brownlow to get a false understanding about him. So he always remembered that that thing, from this we can see Oliver was absolutely.

5. Oliver's bravery

When i finish the story, the detail make a deep impression on me, i was shocked by this little boy,he is so brave, and let us have a look at

Just remember another scene that Oliver escapes from that shop,

hard and long for Oliver.

Conclusion

Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realists in English literature history. Oliver Twist is his masterpiece. It is Dickens' favourite novel. Oliver Twist is a very moving story, and it is the first novel that readers are led to a very sad world, and Oliver is such a role who has so many characters bravery, kindness, innocence,and so on. They are all showed from his attitudes toward the peoples and things around him. No matter whom they are, Oliver always expresses his kindness to them, no matter what the things are, difficult or good, he also showed bravery. He love his mother very much, and be honest to Mr. Brownlow. So kind a boy. In that society which is dirty and criminal always happened, people at that time are almost selfish, bad and poor. I am so happy for little Oliver, he finally found his felicity. He is an optimistic, not scared of difficulties, polite and appreciative boy. He deserves what he gets in the end. The plot in intricate, and every character is masterly linked together. However , Oliver is born in the society, he doesn't influence by them. Constantly he keeps kindhearted to everybody. That is the reason that he gets a good and a happy life finally. When we think of the boy, his character will give a deep impression on us and he can be the positive spirit for us. It encourages the poor people who were eager to stand up, fight against with the authorities.

Reference

1 王佐良. 1996;《英国文学史》, 北京商务出版社

2 罗经国. 1989;《狄更斯评论集》, 上海译文出版社

3 狄更斯. 1992; 《雾都孤儿》, 牛津大学出版社,外语教学与研究出版社

4 吴伟仁. 1988; 《英国文学史选读》,外语教学与研究出版社

5 http://www.benkelunwen.cn/article/wenxue1/yingmeiwenxue/list_35_62.html

范文七:《雾都孤儿》的文献综述 投稿:段火灬

关于“腐朽社会中的纯洁品质-《雾都孤儿》中人物

的分析”的文献综述

学生:赵丽莉

指导老师:李艳

淮南师范学院外语系

前言

经过了资本主义社会的过渡,世界已然迎来了新的时代,而当今时代的主题正是和谐与发展。和谐社会需要人们有纯洁的思想,要有善良的美德,但俗话说“有阳光的地方就会有阴影”,人性中负面的情绪也无处不在。可虽说如此,现如今这种“阴影”的范围却变得越来越大了。邪恶、残忍的事例也屡见不鲜,最令人震惊的是2011年10月,2岁的小悦悦相继被两辆车碾压,7分钟内,18名路人路过都视而不见,最终导致小悦悦因抢救无效而死亡的事件。我们心中本该保留的那一份纯洁的助人为乐的精神不见了,见死不救,麻木不仁控制了人们的思想和行为。除此之外,老人假摔倒讹诈好心人,拖欠农民工工资等等,各种形式的违背道德良知的事件层出不穷,这些足够给我们敲响警钟了!我们的道德品质需要纯洁,我们的和谐社会需要纯洁。《雾都孤儿》作为19世纪英国最著名的批判现实主义小说家的一部伟大的小说,它的主题是宣扬善,认为善一定能战胜恶,纯洁的品质能够荡涤恶的土壤。本文将主要以《雾都孤儿》中的纯洁品质战胜腐朽社会现实的过程以及从中得到的对现代社会有益的启示两个方面的文献资料进行综述。

研究背景

狄更斯的小说《雾都孤儿》自问世以来就引起了巨大反响,对其进行的研究不一,但多数都是被其深刻的人物描写和美好愿望的表达所震撼。至今,与它有关的研究依然层出不穷。

研究现状

国外研究现状:在国外学者如Gilbert Keith Chesterton 在1911年曾发表过Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens文集,George Gissing 曾发表过Parentage and Inheritance in the Novels of Charles Dickens,还有一些外国大学的文学课堂也不断地在深入研究着狄更斯的作品,其中最有名的可以数美国的加州大学。他们有着专业的教授对狄更斯的作品进行透彻的分析,同时每年举办一次有关狄更斯的年会探讨最新的研究成果。

国内研究现状:我了解到目前国内有许多院校对《雾都孤儿》进行着研究。

20世纪80年代对《雾都孤儿》的作者研究已经有了相当的发展,例如:上海译文出版社1989年出版的罗经国的《狄更斯评论集》本书选译了欧美一些著名作家和评论家对狄更斯的评论这些评论文,按照发表的年代,大致可以分为三个时期。第一个时期是狄更斯在世时人们对他的评论。第二个时期是从1870年狄更斯逝世到20世纪40年代。狄更斯的好友和遗嘱执行人约翰·福斯特所写的狄更斯传记中关于狄更斯童年时代的两章,也作为附录译出,附在本书最后。第三

个时期是第二次世界大战以后英、美作家和评论家的文章。各派评论家对狄更斯的评价很不相同。

20世纪90年代,中南民族大学刘精香的“《雾都孤儿》中南希形象剖析”一文从《雾都孤儿》的一个次要人物南希入手,对她的性格特点进行了全面分析,并指出这个人物在整个故事发展中的作用。同时,文章根据南希的遭遇,深入探索了她的心路历程。这不但能引起读者对这位迷途知返的“女贼”的同情,更有助于我们认识她所处的那个社会的真面目。

21世纪初,对于《雾都孤儿》的研究有了新的发展。例如:华中师范大学的乔国强在其发表的期刊“从《雾都孤儿》看狄更斯的反犹主义倾向”中,从种族主义立场出发,认为犹太人

21世纪10年代,对于《雾都孤儿》的研究层出不穷。如:有从资本主义弊端方面做研究的。长江职业学院的郝露在湖北成人教育学院期刊上发表的“狄更斯《雾都孤儿》中的批判资本主义”一文中,狄更斯批判抨击社会的邪恶、不公、虚伪、腐化、拜金等丑陋现象。《雾都孤儿》中狄更斯刻画了一连串的人物:邪恶的费金,塞克斯,班布尔等等,还有良心未泯的南希,善良的罗斯、奥利弗、梅里夫人等等。狄更斯对这些人物栩栩如生的描写深刻的反应出当时社会的黑暗,从而讽刺和抨击资本主义社会制度下人性的丑恶和黑暗。还有从

小说的善恶斗争方面研究的。哈尔滨师范大学西语学院的郑美娜在学理论期刊上发表的“《论<雾都孤儿>中的善与恶》”,文章中从伦理学的角度详细分析了善与恶的标准。通过分析《雾都孤儿》中仁爱与暴虐在人物性格上的体现,把社会最黑暗、最丑陋的现象暴露出来。从而体现狄更斯写作的一大特点,邪恶的人只是风光一时,最终都会恶有恶报;好人即使经历了很多的 苦难,但是最后也会善有善报。

狄更斯作为19世纪英国最著名的批判现实主义小说家之一, 其作品也淋漓尽致的展现了当时的时代背景,反映了善必定战胜恶的历史必然,给我们的未来指明了道路。

研究趋势

回顾不同时期人们对于这一课题的研究,无论是国内还是国外,人们对于纯洁与邪恶的理解是不断加深的,从最初单纯的把小说中人物分成纯洁的、邪恶的两类,到能够全面的认识书中人物,从最初大多人只看到书中的善与恶到现在人们能够从多个方面来阐释这部小说,人们对于《雾都孤儿》的理解在不断的加深,它的各方面的价值也不断的被挖掘出来了。作为一部伟大的批判现实主义小说,它潜在的价值随着时间的推移会更加丰富,因此,对于这一课题的研究在未来很长一段时间内仍然需要我们去探讨和研究的。

总结

通过以上分析,可见无论是国内还是国外,无论是从童话色彩、

善于恶、狄更斯的反犹主义倾向还是对资本主义的批判等各方面,各界学者对于《雾都孤儿》的研究都是比较翔实和完备的,相信在未来这部小说更多的价值会被发掘出来。

参考文献:

[1] Catherine Peters. Charles Dickens[M]. Xi'an: Xi'an World Publishing

Corporation,1998.

[2] George Gissing. Parentage and Inheritance in the Novels of Charles

Dickens [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1980.

[3] Gilbert Keith Chesterton. Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works

of Charles Dickens [M]. New Jersey: Princeton University, 1911.

[4] Jackson. Charles Dickens [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Press,

1993.

[5] John Forster. The Life of Charles Dickens [M]. Beijing: Foreign

Language Teaching and Research Press, 2009.

[6] Kaplan Fred. Dickens: A Biography [M]. New York: New York

Language Press, 1988.

[7] Michael Slater. Dickens and Women [M]. Stanford: Stanford

University Press, 1983.

[8] Smith, Grahame. Charles Dickens: A Literary Life [M]. New York:

New York Language Press, 1996.

[9] 狄更斯, 雾都孤儿[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1992.

[10] 郝露, 狄更斯《雾都孤儿》中的批判资本主义 [J].湖北:湖北教

育出版社,2010.

[11] 刘精香,《雾都孤儿》中南希形象剖析[J].武汉:中南民族大学出

版社,1999.

[12] 罗经国, 狄更斯评论集[M].上海:上海译文出版社,1989.

[13] 钱青, 英国19世纪文学史[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版

社,2001.

[14] 乔国强, 从《雾都孤儿》看狄更斯的反犹主义倾向[J].上海:上

海译文出版社,2008.

[15] 张玲, 英国伟大的小说家狄更斯[M].北京:北京出版社,1983.

[16] 郑美娜, 论《雾都孤儿》中的善与恶[J].北京:北京出版社,2010.

范文八:雾都孤儿英语论文 投稿:秦娡娢

HUBEI NORMAL UNIVERSITY

毕业论文(设计)

论文题目

作者姓名

所在院系

专业名称

完成时间 Oliver Twist‟s Struggle for Freedom 康苏 外国语学院 英语教育 13年6月17日

Contents

1. Introduction to the Author and the Novel. …………………………........4

1.1 The High Prestige Charles Dickens and Oliver Twist. ……………….4

1.2 The Personality of Charles Dickens…………………………………...4

1.3 The Greatness of Oliver Twist…………………………………………4

2. Oliver‟s Decision to Leave for London. ………………………………...5

2.1 Oliver‟s Suffering in the Workhouse…………………………………..5

2.2 Oliver‟s Learning a Trade……………………………………………...5

2.3 Oliver‟s Decision to Head to London……………………………........5

3. Oliver‟s Miserable Experience in London. ………………………..........6

3.1 Fagin‟s and His Boy‟s Trap………………………………………...…..6

3.2 Oliver‟s Temporary Rescue by Mr. Brownlow………………...….........6

3.3 Oliver‟s Helpless of the Housebreaking………………………….……6

4. Oliver‟s Turn in His Life…………………………………………….….....7

4.1 The Secret of the Identity of Oliver………………………….………..7

4.2 The Plot between Fagin and Monks……………………….…….........7

4.3 The Punishment on the Murder………………………….…………....7

5. Conclusion:The Purpose of Writing This Story……………………………..8

Oliver Twist’s Struggle for Freedom

(康苏, Class1106 ,College of Foreign Language students,

Hubei Normal University, Huangshi,435000 )

Abstract:

Under the influence of industrial revolution, England made great progress in his economy. At the same time, some social problems became worse and more obvious. The gap between the rich and the poor was growing. People in the poor working conditions or at the bottom of society suffered a lot. Charles Dickens showed his love and sympathy for the poor, the weak and the innocent person. Dickens focused compassions and narrative interest upon a child, Oliver Twist. In this novel, the author criticized the violence of some capitalists and the poor law by describing the miserable experience of Oliver in a ironic and romantic way. Oliver‟s escaping and fighting ran through the novel. No matter what he had suffered, he invariably believed that something would be better and there would be freedom.

Key words: Freedom Capitalist Kindness

Oliver Twist’s Struggle for Freedom

1. Introduction to the Author and the Novel.

1.1 The High Prestige Charles Dickens and Oliver Twist.

Charles Dickens was an English writer and social critic. There is no need to argue about the greatness of Charles Dickens who was generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. By the twentieth century, his literary genius was broadly acknowledged by critics and scholars. Oliver Twist was the first social novel of Dickens‟ work. It occupies an important position in the history of world literature.

1.2 The Personality of Charles Dickens.

Born in Portsmouth, England, Dickens left school to work in a factory after his father was thrown into the prison. Although he had little formal education, his early improverishment drove him to succeed. Over his career he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, 5 novellas and hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles. Actually he campaigned vigorously for children‟s rights, education and other social reforms. With a few years, he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humor, satire and keen observation of character and society. His creative genius has been praised by other writers for its realism, comedy, prose style, unique characterizations and social criticism.

1.3 The Greatness of Oliver Twist.

Dickens has made a child the center of this novel, and through what has happened to a boy, trying to show the readers a true picture of the real life of the common people in the nineteenth century England. Oliver was born and brought up in the terrible workhouse. He was expelled for asking for more food. Then fell into the Fagin‟s gang and became part of the criminal underworld where he learned how to acquire the art of survival in a pitiless world. He was trapped by his brother because of the heritage. At last, Oliver was rescued by Mr. Brownlow who was a kind old gentleman and searched for his identity. In the progress of escaping from he undertaker‟s house and the gang of thieves, Oliver struggled for his freedom and rights. In other words, he escaped from oppression to strive for happiness.

2. Oliver’s Decision to Leave for London.

2.1 Oliver’s Suffering in the Workhouse.

Oliver cried lustily when he was born into this miserable world. „If he could have known that he was an orphan, left to the mercies of church-wardens and overseers, perhaps he could cried the louder.‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,4). In the beginning of the story, the author used a hint to attracted readers‟ interest. Then we can find what the Oliver suffered in the workhouse. Not only did the food taste terrible, but it never filled the children‟s stomachs. They had nothing but thin soup three times a day, with an onion twice a week and a roll on Sunday. After three months of near-starvation, Oliver had no choice but to ask more to eat. His action contributed to Mr. Bumble‟s decision to send him away. Because there is no one can challenge rules made by the capitalists.

2.2 Oliver’s Learning a Trade.

After hearing the news that Mr. Bumble would send him to learn a trade, Oliver sobbed bitterly with tears rolling down his face. Mr. Bumble thought that was a foolish action to cry into his gruel. „It certainly was foolish, for there was quite enough water in it already.‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,8 ). This humorous sarcasm aimed at the cruel and the greed of the capitalists. When Oliver was sent to the coffin shop, he was given some cold meat that was put out for the dog. And his bed was under the counter among the coffins. Oliver was looked down upon there. When he asked Noah whether he wanted the coffin or not, the charity-boy looked monstrous fierce and said that Oliver would want one before long, if he cut jokes with his superiors in that way. Oliver was the weak at the bottom of the society, so even a servant could bully him. The undertaker squeezed everything from Oliver. Moreover, he took advantage of Oliver‟s expression of melancholy in his face to made Oliver to be a mourner, a „delightful mute‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,18).

2.3 Oliver’s Decision to Head to London.

When Noah called his mother‟s bad names, Oliver burst out fighting with Noah. There is a bottom in everyone‟s life. Dickens wisely gave Oliver certain „heroic‟ action which also propelled the narrative. The fight with Noah in defence of his mother‟s name resulted in his decision to head to London. Because of his resistance, Oliver was spanked and was shut in the room with nothing but a stale piece of bread. Later, in the middle of night, he decided to slip softly out of the house forever. Oliver walked more than 70 miles for seven days to reach his next destination, London which is the capital of England. He did not know what he would encounter, but he had faith in something better in a new place. The only thing that he wanted to get is freedom. However, is was more difficult for him to get that right in the world.

3. Oliver’s Miserable Experience in London.

3.1 Fagin’s and His Boy’s Trap.

On the seventh day of his journey, Oliver met one of thieves in Fagin‟s gang. He offered to provide Oliver with free room and board. Oliver was so pure and honest that he didn‟t realize that there was no such thing as a free lunch. Later he was introduced to an old gentleman, Fagin who taught him some special skills to survive in this miserable world. Oliver didn‟t understand why a man with so many riches lived in such a run-down house, but he decided that Fagin must spend all his money taking care of the boys. Although he was puzzled by their actions, Oliver thought they were good men. „Dickens show thieves “as they are” in their violence of action and mood, their squalor, callousness and mutual distrust.‟ (Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,7). The thieves were not „downright scoundrels‟ but „dandy‟ and „poetical‟. They stolen not only at night, but also in the day. Then we can easily realize another social problem, the poor law, in this part.

3.2 Oliver’s Temporary Rescue by Mr. Brownlow.

After Oliver had practiced that trick for several days, he was allowed to go out with the Dodger and Bates. They led Oliver to a bookstall on a busy street. They sneaked up behind a gentleman and stolen his handkerchief from his pocket. Oliver watched in horror and he finally understood what kind of „business‟ Fagin and his boys engaged in. He was so upset that run as fast as he could. Unfortunately, the Dodger and Bates were already out of sight and he was caught by the people on the street. Oliver was sick and fainted on the courtroom‟s floor. Just then, the owner of the bookstall swore that Oliver was not the thief. He was freed and took home by Mr. Brownlow. Oliver looks like the person in the picture in the house. This remarkable likeness left a hint about Oliver‟s special identity.

3.3 Oliver’s Helpless of the Housebreaking.

The gang of thieves were afraid that Oliver would blab to the police. Then they decided to kidnapped him. When he was dragged by Nancy, Oliver cried for help. But no one gave a hand for there was nobody to care for him and he had been so plain. Later Oliver was delivered over to Sikes who forced him to do the burglary with them. Oliver begged for his mercy an cried „Let me ran away and die in the field. I will never come near London, never, never!‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,60). London was originally a heaven for Oliver to seek for freedom, but at that time it was a hell. Although he didn‟t get what he pursued, he would never take illegal action that go against other‟s interest. So he made his efforts to dart upstairs from the hall and alarm the family whether he died or not. Then he was shoot and dropped by Sikes. It was lucky that he was rescued by Rose, a kind and beautiful girl. „Crime, likes death, is not confined to the old and withered alone. The youngest and fairest are too often its chosen victims.‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,72 ). This universal viewpoint maybe one of the reasons that children lacked attention, concern and love from the society. Actually I do agree with Rose‟s opinion that we can‟t always put the criminals into a prison, which in any case must be the grave of all his chances of amendment.

4. Oliver’s Turn in His Life.

4.1 The Secret of the Identity of Oliver.

When Oliver got better, how deeply he felt the goodness of the two sweet ladies. He hoped that when he grew strong and well again, he could do something to show their gentle kindness had not cast away. „He was eager to serve them with his whole heart and soul.‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,76). Whatever he had suffered, Oliver kept his kindness from beginning to end. His breast was full of love and duty. It was his kindness that changed the heart of Nancy and presented the soul of goodness in things evil. Nancy risked her life to tell Rose about the conversation held between Monks and Fagin. With Roses help, Oliver had reunion with Mr. Bumble who was willing to find out the secret of the identity of him.

4.2 The Plot between Fagin and Monks

It couldn‟t be denied that the greed of humanity changed the Oliver‟s fortune. The old nurse took the relic of Oliver‟s mother to a pawn. Mrs. Corney and Mr. Bumble helped Monks to destroy the evidence of Oliver‟s identity because of the temptation of money. In order to get the heritage of Oliver according to their father‟s will, Monks contrived for his poor young brother. Fagin could made a good profit to help him driving Oliver through every jail in town and then hauling Oliver for some capital felony. Now we can easily discover that money plays a significant role in the loop of crime. Money is the tool in the world. However they wanted it above all things. The doctor gave the sarcastic remarks about their actions. „Are we to pass a vote of thanks to all these vagabonds, male and female and beg them to accept a hundred pounds, or so, apiece, as a trifling mark of our esteem, and some slight acknowledgement of their kindness to Oliver?‟(Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,110). The irony here was that giving thanks to the criminal‟s thanks.

4.3 The Punishment on the Murder.

Mr. Brownlow considered that they had extreme difficulty in getting to the bottom of the mystery, unless they could bring Monks on his knees. And that could only be done by stratagem. Later, Mr. Brownlow met Monks and exposed his crime. At first, Monks thought they couldn‟t prove anything against him. But it was out of his expectation that Mr. Brownlow was his father‟s best friend and he knew the every detail of his family members. At last, Monks had no choice but to make a statements of truth and facts, and repeated it before witnesses. And the murder, Sikes who killed Nancy, lost his balance and tumbled off the roof on his way to escaped. He hung lifeless against the wall of the house. The result of Sikes‟ fortune was a comedy, because he killed himself unwillingly.

5. Conclusion:The Purpose of Writing This Story.

Charles Dickens have thrown his whole heart and soul into Oliver. The criminals of London‟s underworld in the miserable reality share the solitary child‟s pain. Oliver is more completely deprived and helpless and evil of the adult world. He should still be sustained by hope and faith in freedom. Dickens wrote about proverty and grim realities of life to show the criminals „as they really are‟ and the principle of Good surviving through every adverse circumstance. The author exposed the dark of the society to call on people to care for children and keep the beauty of human nature.

Bibliography:

1、 Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,外语教学与研究出版社,1997.04

2、 Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist,北京:外文出版社,2000.04

3、 雾都孤儿,狄更斯,上海世界图书出版公司,2001.02

4、 雾都孤儿,狄更斯,安徽科学技术出版社,2005.07

范文九:雾都孤儿论文开题 投稿:毛鞃鞄

Discussion on Charles Dickens’ Humanity in Oliver Twist 从《雾都孤儿》看查尔斯狄更斯的仁慈 雾都孤儿》 摘要儿童是狄更斯小说中的一类主要人物形象,他们是维多利亚时期社会底层人 民生活的代表,本文从狄更斯的小说《雾都孤儿》中分析了他的仁慈思想,首先 文章介绍了选题研究的背景,接着分析了小说的内容梗概和《雾都孤儿》的主题 思想,在此基础上文章重点研究了狄更斯的仁爱思想在小说中的反应,最后笔者 剖析了狄更斯产生仁爱思想的原因。 希望通过本文的研究能够帮助读者更好的欣 赏这部小说。 关键词: 关键词:仁慈,原因,背景 Abstract Children were a kind of main characters appearing in Charles Dickens’ novels, and they were the representatives of people living in the bottom of society in the Victorian Period This paper analyzes Dickens’ humanity in his novel Oliver Twist It firstly introduces the research background, then analyzes the main content and the theme of Oliver Twist, and on this basis, it focuses on studying the reflection of Dickens’ humanity in the novel Finally, it analyzes the causes for Dickens’ humanity I hope the study in this paper can help readers better appreciate the novel Keywords: Humanity; Cause; Background Discussion on Charles Dickens’ Humanity in Oliver Twist 从《雾都孤儿》看查尔斯狄更斯的仁慈 雾都孤儿》 Contents I Introduction 1.1. Research Background 1.2. Writing motivation II Oliver Twist 2.1. Introduction of the Novel 211 Historical Background 212 The Main Content of the Novel 22 The Theme of the Novel III Charles Dickens’ Humanity 31 Reflection from Positive Characters 311 Oliver Twist 312 Brownlow 313 Nancy 32 Reflection from Counter-Examples 321 Fagin 322 Sikes IV. Causes of Dickens’ Humanity 41 The Backgrounds in Britain in Mid 19th Century 411 Social Background 412 English Critical Realism 42 Charles Dickens 421 Introduction 422 Family 423 Experiences in Childhood V Conclusion

范文十:再读_雾都孤儿_英文 投稿:萧昔昕

语文学刊#外语教育教学 2009年第10期

ReviewofOliverTwist

o

GuanXulan

(InnerMongoliaUniversity,Huhhot,InnerMongolia010022)

'earlierworks,thistextwouldbeanalyzedhowDickensmakepublic [Abstract] OliverTwistisoneofDickenss

darksystemofcapitalismandantinomybetweencapitalistandlaborpeoplefromthreekindsofwritingmethodashumor,i2rony,symbo.l

[Keywords] OliverTwist;humor; irony; symbol

[中图分类号]I106.4 [文献标识码]A [文章编号]167228610(2009)1020089203

I.Introduction

DickensisoneofthegreatestEnglishrealisticwritersin

19thcentury.Hisworksarelovedandspreadwidely.

TheearlierworksofDickens,suchasOliverTwist,werecreatedwiththepublicationofTheNewPoorLawinparliamentin1843.thegreatestartistDickensdevelopedwiththemovementofEnglishliberation.Thecapitalistproductiverelationscouldnotadapttothedevelopmentofproductiveforces.Thepeoplesufferedfromthebitterness.Inthatcase,theworkingclassfoughtfortheirpoliticalright.SotheChartistMovementbegan.

TheChartistMovementdecidestheexposureofDickens.woksasitdecidestheappearanceofEnglishcriticalrealismin19thcentury.

ThepowerofDickenscomesfromhisrealismandunder2standingofthereality.Heexposesthebasicproblemsofthattime.TheresourceofhiscriticismdecidesthedevelopmentofEnglishrealismin19thcentury.

OliverTwistisoneifhisnovels,favoredbyhisreaders.ItisthefirstsocialnovelofDickens..Heexposestheunequalphenomenonandthebitternessofthepoorpeople.Healsoexpo2sestheselfishness,cold-heartednessinhumanityofthecapi2talistclass.Meanwhile,hedescribesthepeopleoppressedbythecapitalistandreflectsthemindsandwishesoftheworkingpeople.

OliverTwistisalsohisfirstnoveldescribingthecriminals,againsttheromanticcriminalnovels.Heexpressesresentmentatthepracticeinpopularliteratureofdepictingrogues,likeMa2cheathinTheBeggar.Opera,asdashingfiguresleadinggayandcolorfullives.Heconsiderssuchmisrepresentationsasapoten2tiallybanefulinfluenceonimpressionableminds.

ThemainthemeofOliverTwististoexposelawstatusofthepoorpeopleandtoreflectthedarknessofthatsociety.Hecritici2zesthecapitalists.Herepresentsthewidereality,thedegenera2tionandthecontradictionandthecapitalists.Themaincharac2

[作者简介]关续兰,女,内蒙古大学艺术学院教师。

teristicsofhisnovelisrealism.Thewriterreflectsthethemein

twoways,themainplotandwritingskillsincludinghumorousstyle,satireandsymbolism.ThisessayelaborateshowDickensrealizesthethemeandformstherealismindetails.Ò.TheMainPlot

TheexperienceofOliver

ThewriterdescribesthesufferingsofOliver,exposingthepovertyandbitternessofthecommonpeople.Hecriticizesthecapitalistclass.Oliverisanillegitimatechild.Itisdoomedthathelivesahardlife.Oliver.sexperienceconsistsofthreepartsmainly:thelifeintheworkhouse,thelifeincoffin-maker.andthelifewiththecriminals.1.1Inworkhouse

Oliverisborninaworkhouse.Hismasterdieswhenheisborn.Itmeansthatthepainfallsonthelittleboy.Helivesinworkhousefortenyears.Whatisthetenyearslike?Whatistheworkhouselike?

Theconditionispoorintheworkhouse.Thechildrencannotgetenoughfoodtoeatorgetwarmclothstowear.Becauseofhunger,theclothingiscutsmallagainandagain.Thepeopleintheworkhouseareexploitedbythecapitalistclassagain.Theirfoodisworsethanthepoorestworkers.Thelaborismorethanthecommonpeople.PleaseseehowDickensexposestheessenceoftheworkhouse.

/theyestablishedtherule,thatpoorpeopleshouldhavethealternative,ofbeingstarvedbyagradualprocessinthehouse,orbyaquickoneoutofit,theycontractedwiththewa2terworkstolayonanunlimitedsupplyofwater,andwithacorn-factortosupplyperiodicallysmallquantitiesofoatmea;landissuedthreemealsofthingrueladay,withanoniontwiceaweekandhalfarollonSundays,Thereliefwasinseparablefromtheworkhouseandthatfrightenedpeople.0

Thisistherealpictureoftheworkhouse.Itisatoolofthecapitalistclassexploitingthepoorpeople.Dickensexposesthe

)89)

LITERATURE GuanXulan/ReviewofOliverTwist

essenceoftheworkhouse.HegivesthesympathiestoOliverand

theworkhouse.Accordingtotheexperienceintheworkhouse,thepretenceandinhumationofthecapitalistclassisexposed.Actuallynobodycaresaboutthechildrenintheworkhouse.Theyliveswithfilthandcoldness,sufferingfromhunger.ThesubsidyforthechildrenisembezzledbythebeadlesoftheworkhouseandMrs.Mannwholooksafterthechildren.Thebeadles,theboardandMrs.Mannarehypocritica.lTheycareabouttheirownin2terest.Theworkhouseistherepresentationofthepovertyofthecommonpeople.Infact,thecapitalistsocietyisabigwork2house,accordingtoDickens.

OnedayOliverwantedmoregrue.lHiswordsshockedeve2Olivercannotbearthemaltreatment,sohegoestoLondon,whichhehadthoughtofasagoodplacetolivein.actually,Londonisnottheheavenbut/adirtierormorewretchedplaceheneverseen.Thestreetwasverynarrowandmuddy,andtheairwasimpregnatedwithfilthyodors,wheredrunkenmenandwomenwere.Positivelywallowinginfilth;andfromseveralofthedoor-ways,greatill-lookingfellowswerecautiousemer2ging,bound,toallappearance,onnoverywell-disposedorharmlesserrands.0Inthispicture,Dickensmentionsthecon2ceptofslum,whichrepresentstherealpictureofslumareainLondonatthattime.Thedescriptionisasiftobetouched.Itmeansalthoughitisthecentreofthecapitalistworld,thereisrybody./Thatbodywillbehungry,0saidthegentlemaninthewhitewaistcoat.Thispictureexposesthepoorconditionoftheworkhouse.Thelittleboy.sstomachisn.tful.lThereasonablerightisregardedasanoffence.Dickensreflectsthepopularo2pinionthatthepovertyisalwayswithcrime.Heexposestheine2qualityofthesociety.Thepoorpeoplealwayssufferfromthepoverty,andtheirmoralityissuspected.Itisadoublestriketothem.

1.2Inthecoffin-maker.s

Oliverwantsmoregrue,landheisregardedasarevoltingchild.Theboardsendshimtothecoffin-maker.sasanap2prentice.Thekeeperofcoffin-maker.sisMr.Sowerberry.HeasksOlivertotakepartinthecauseofafunera.lBecauseofhisattendance,andthepopulardisease,thebusinessisgood.Hedoesagoodjob.Heisenviedbyhisfellow,Noach,whoisacharitychildandoftenbulliesOliver.Atlast,hecursesOliver.smother.Oliverriseswithforceandspirit.HeispunishedbytheMr.Sowerry.Hegoesaway.

Mr.SowerberryemploysOlivertakingpartinafuneralpro2cession.Fromthispoint,wecanseethecapitalistclassexploitthechildlaborersDickensexposesthegreedynatureofthecapi2talistclass.Inaddition,whenOliverisinthecoffin-maker.s,Mr.Sowerberryearnsalotofmoney.Thereasonsaretheattend2anceofOliverandepidemicdisease.Sowecanseethehygieneconditionisverypoor.Theepidemicdiseaseiswidelyspread./incommercialphrase,coffinswerelookingup,andOliverac2quiredagreatofexperience.0Wecanseethatsocietylackssan2itation.Thewateriscontaminated.Alotofpoorpeopledieofthedisease.Thepictureisnottheromanticexaggeration,bittranscriptsfromactualitythatcanbeverified.Thevisitationsofcholeraandpestilencecloselyassociatedwithfilth,in1831,atlasttaughttheabundantwater,properdrainage,andtheclosingoftheoldgraveyards.Allthedescriptionsfromthatsocietyshowthelivinglevelofthepoorpeople,tobelower.

BecauseOliver.smothercursed,herisesuptobeatNoah.EventhoughOliversufferssomuchpain,hecannotprotecthisdignity.Thepoorpeople.sdignityistrodonbythecapitalistclass.Theyhavenotanyhumanright.Thecapitalistsocietyisforthecapitalistclass.Theyshareal,lincludingmoney,politi2calrights,status,etc.Thepoorpeoplehavepovertyandmortifi2cation.Dickensaccusestheinequalsocialphenomenon.Hisrealdescriptionsmakereaders,atthattimeortoday,feelthegapandcontradictionbetweenthecapitalistclassandthelaboringpeoplevigorously.

1.3Inthethieves.den

)90)

filth,povertyandcrime.Wecanseethegapbetweenthepoorandtherich.WecanalsofeelthepovertyandbitternessofthepoorinLondon.Theyliveaveryhardlife.

Oliverisveryunluckytobecontrolledbythethieves.TheyaskedOlivertostealhandkerchiefs.Oncehewascaughtbyanoldgentleman.,Mr.Brownlow.HesavedOliverandtookhimhome.TheMr.BrownlowstreatedOliververywel.lMr.Brown2lowwantedtotesttheboy,andsenthimtopaymoneytoothers.Unfortunatelyhewasmetbythethieveswastakentobreakintoahouse.Oliverwashurt.SikeandTobyescaped.OliverwassavedbyMr.Maylie,themasterofthehouse.ItwascoincidedthatMissRosewasOliver.saunt.Mr.MayliefoundthatOli2ver.spropertywasswallowedupbyhisbrother,Monks.Atlast,withthehelpofMr.Brownlow,Monksadmittedhisguilty.Hegaveuptheproperty.Oliversharedtherightoftheproperty,andMr.Brownlowregardedhimashisson.Thethieveswerepun2ishedseriously.

Inthispart,Dickensdescribesthelifeifthethieves./Thewallsandceilingofthethieveswasdressedingreasyflannelgown,,severalroughbedsmadeofoldsackswerehuddledsidebysideonthefloor.0Wecanseethethieves.conditionisverypoor.Theyliveinanarrowanddirtyroom.Theyaredressedinrags.Theyliveahardlife.Dickensdepictsthereallifeofthecriminals.

In1930.s,thereisabranchofromanticcriminalnovels.TherepresentativewriterisBuwer.Dickensisoppositetothero2manticimitator.sopinion.IntheprefaceofOliverTwist,hede2bateswithBuwerandcondemnsthefalseromanticism.Heinsistthatthedescriptionshouldconformwiththereallifeandhedisa2greestheidealismofthecrimeandthecriminals.Hethinksthewritesshouldnotdescribethecriminalsasherosoflivinginfree2domandindependencewithoutrestrict.Itwillmisleadtheread2ers.InOliverTwist,Dickensdepictsthereallifeofthethieves,suchaspoverty,starvationandcontradiction.

Thereareseveralthieveswhohavetostealforliving,suchasnacyandBates.Theyarepoorpeopleandtheirnatureisgood.Dickenscreatestheseimagestoexposetheterriblesocialsystem,andthebackwardeducation.Iftheycanreceivethenor2maleducation,theywon.tbethieves.Dickenschargesthedark2nessofthatsociety.Inthatsociety,peopleareveryeasytode2generate.Theseimagesgivereaderspacetothinkovertheprob2lemofthatsociety.Dickensenlightensreaderstoprotestagainstdarksociety.

Fromthelifeintheworkhouse,wecanseethepoorcondi2tionofthecommonpeople,andtheprejudiceagainstthem.

语文学刊#外语教育教学 2009年第10期

Fromthelifeinthecoffin-maker.s,wecanseethecapitalistclassexploitthechildlaborandtrodontheirdignity.SowecanmakeaconcisionbyanalyzingthethreeperiodlifeofOliver.Thepoorpeople.sstatusisverylow.Itrepresentsinthreeaspects.Theireconomicconditionisverypoor.Theirphysicallaborisex2ploitedbythecapitalistclass.Theirdignityistrodon.Sowecansaythecontradictionbetweenthecapitalistclassandthela2boringpeopleisn.tinharmoniousproportion.Dickensrealizesthethemeofexposingthecontradictory.Ó.Humorousstyle

3.1Humorousstyle

1.Dickensoftenuseshumortoexposethegreedanddegen2erationofthecapitalistclass,soastomakeastrongimpressiononthereaders.Forinstance,onceawomanwasseriouslyil,lhowdidthebeadletreather?

/Weshouldn.thaveknownanythingaboutthemthen,on2lyawomanwholodgesinthesamehousemadeonapplicationtotheparochialcommitteeforthemtosendtheparochialsurgeontoseeawoman,aswasverybad.Hehadgoneouttodinner,buthisprenticesentthemsomemedicineinablacking-bottle,off-hand,Sir,God,wholesomemedicine,aswasgivenwithgreatsuccesstotwoIrishlaborers,onlyaweekbeforesentthemfornothing,withablacking–bottlein,andhesendsbackwordthatsheshallnottakeitsir!0

Thebeadleregardsthepoorpeopleasrubbish,worthyofnothing.Inthispicture,Dickensuseshumortoshowtheinhu2manity.Themedicineinablacking-bottleissenttothewoman,becauseitcurestwoIrishlaborers,buthedoesn.tknowwhethertheywilldothesametoher.Thehumorshowsthecold2nessandindifferenceofthebeadle.

2.Thehumorcanalsoexposethelawstatusofthepoorpeople.WhenOliverisborn,healmostdies.WeseehowDick2ensdescribesit./andforsometimehrlaygaspingonalittleflackmattress,ratherunequallypoisedbetweenthisworldandthenext,Therebeingnobody,however,butapauperoldwoman,whowasrenderedrathermistybyanunwontedallowanceofbeer;andaparishsurgeonwhodidsuchmattersbycon2tract;0

ThehumoroustoneshowsthebitternessofOliver.ReadersmayfeelverysadandgivesympathiestoOliveraftertheysmile.Itissocalledlaughterwithtears.Itisn.treallaughter.Itislaughterwithsadnessbecausethepoorpeoplehavenoalterna2tive.

HumorousskillisoftenusedbyDickensinthisnove.lIt

leavesastrongimpressiononreaders.Itmakesreadersfeelthesufferingofthepoorpeopleanduglyacesofthecapitalistclass.

3.2Satire

SatireisanotherwritingskillofDickensinthisnove,lwhichisastrongattackonthatsociety.Hesatirizesthecorrup2tionandgreedofthecapitalistclass.Bythesatire,hepointscutthevitalpartdistinctlyandexposesthenaturemercilessly.

Whenhetalksabouttheboard,hedescribesinthisway./Thememberofthisboardwereverysage,deep,philosophical,Itwasatavernwheretherewasnothingtopay;apublicbreak2fast,dinner,teaandsupperalltheyear,0

Dickenssatirestheboardphilosophicalmen.Heexposesthattheboardtriestheirbesttoexploitthepoorpeople.Theyareso-calledphilosophicalmen.Hereflectsthegreedofthecapi2talistclass.Theywanttodeepentheexploitationofthepoorpeo2ple.Bythesatire,readerscanfeeltheunlimitedwildambition,andtheirdissatisfaction.Itcancausereaderssympatheticre2sponse.Thesatirestressesthetheme.

3.3Symbolism

Anovelmayhavemanylevelsofsymbolism.Thesettingandthecharactersmayconveysymbolicmeaningasidefromtheirplotfunction.Sometraitsorgesturesofapersonmaysymbolizeanaspectofhischaracter,asBumble.sfondnessofhisthree-corneredhatexpresseshisdesiretoanemptyauthoritarianism.

Apurelysymboliccharacterisonewhohasnoplotfunctionatal.lThechimneysweeper,Gamfieldisso.Hecontributesnothingtodeveloptheplot,buthesymbolizestheconsummaterepresentativeofthecruelty.Ordinarily,symbolicstatementgivesexpressiontoanabstraction.Inspiteofhisconspicuousroleintheplot,Brownlowsymbolizesthevirtue,benevolence.

Thereisanothersymbolinthisnove.lDickensusestheset2tingtosymbolizethedarknessofthatsociety.Thedarkdeedsanddarkpassionsaresymbolizedbydimrooms,smoke,fog,andpitch-blacknights.Thegoverningmoodofterrorandmer2cilessbrutalitymaybeidentifiedwiththefrequentrainandun2commonlycoldweather.

Dickensdeepenstheimpressionofthedarknessofthatsoci2etyandthesufferingofthepoorpeopleonthereadersbythethreewritingskills.ThewritingskillshelpDickenstoachievethetheme.

OliverTwistisasuccessfulrealisticnove.lThenovelrepre2sentsthattimeswidelyandexposesthatsocietydeeply.Itre2flectstherealityandcontradictionbetweenthelaboringpeopleandthecapitalistclass.

再读5雾都孤儿6

关续兰

(内蒙古大学艺术学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010010)

[摘 要] 5雾都孤儿6是狄更斯的早期作品之一,本文从三种写作方法幽默,讽刺,象征来分析狄更斯是

怎样来揭露资本主义的黑暗制度,资本家和劳动人民的矛盾。

[关键词] 雾都孤儿; 幽默; 讽刺; 象征

)

91)

字典词典项目管理试题项目管理试题【范文精选】项目管理试题【专家解析】幸福就是作文幸福就是作文【范文精选】幸福就是作文【专家解析】课间十分钟作文三年级课间十分钟作文三年级【范文精选】课间十分钟作文三年级【专家解析】