Milton Friedman, Free Markets Theorist, Dies at 94.
Milton Friedman, the grandmaster of free-market economic theory in the postwar era and a prime force in the movement of nations toward less
government and greater reliance on individual responsibility, died today in San Francisco, where he lived. He was 94.
Conservative and liberal colleagues alike viewed Mr. Friedman, a Nobel prize laureate, as one of the 20th century’s leading economic scholars, on a par with giants like John Maynard Keynes and Paul Samuelson.
Flying the flag of economic conservatism, Mr. Friedman led the postwar
challenge to the hallowed theories of Lord Keynes, the British economist who maintained that governments had a duty to help capitalistic economies through periods of recession and to prevent boom times from exploding into high inflation.
In Professor Friedman’s view, government had the opposite obligation: to keep its hands off the economy, to let the free market do its work.
The only economic lever that Mr. Friedman would allow government to use was the one that controlled the supply of money — a monetarist view that had gone out of favor when he embraced it in the 1950s. He went on to record a signal achievement, predicting the unprecedented combination of rising
unemployment and rising inflation that came to be called stagflation. His work
earned him the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science in 1976.
Rarely, his colleagues said, did anyone have such impact on both his own
profession and on government. Though he never served officially in the halls of power, he was always around them, as an adviser and theorist.
“Among economic scholars, Milton Friedman had no peer,” Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, said today. “The direct and indirect influences of his thinking on contemporary monetary economics would be difficult to overstate.”
Alan Greenspan, the former Federal Reserve chairman, said of Mr. Friedman in an interview on Tuesday. “From a longer-term point of view, it’s his academic achievements which will have lasting import. But I would not dismiss the profound impact he has already had on the American public’s view.”
Mr. Friedman had a gift for communicating complicated ideas in simple and lucid ways, and it served him well as the author or co-author of more than a dozen books, as a columnist for Newsweek from 1966 to 1983 and even as the star of a public television series.
Panama goes to polls on upgrade for canal
PANAMA CITY: Voters were expected Sunday to approve the largest
modernization project in the 92-year history of the Panama Canal, a $5.25 billion plan to expand the waterway to allow for larger ships while alleviating traffic problems.
The government of President Martín Torrijos has billed the referendum as
historic, saying the work would double the capacity of a canal already on pace to generate about $1.4 billion in revenue this year. Critics claim the expansion would benefit the canal's customers more than Panamanians, and worry that costs could balloon, forcing this debt- ridden country to borrow even more. The project would build a third set of locks on the Pacific and Atlantic ends of the canal by 2015, allowing it to handle modern container ships, cruise liners and tankers too large for its locks, which are 33 meters, or 108 feet, wide. The Panama Canal Authority, the autonomous government agency that runs the canal, says the project would be paid for by increasing tolls and would generate $6 billion in revenue by 2025.
There is nothing Panamanians are more passionate about than the canal.
Public opinion polls indicate that the plan would be approved overwhelmingly. Green and white signs throughout the country read
who was herding cows on horseback in Nuevo Provedencia, on the banks of Lake Gatún, an artificial reservoir that supplies water to the canal.
The canal employs 8,000 workers and the expansion is expected to generate as many as 40,000 new jobs. Unemployment in Panama is 9.5 percent, and 40 percent of the country lives in poverty.
But critics fear that the expansion could cost nearly double the government's estimate, as well as stoke corruption and uncontrolled debt.
Lewis Navarro noted that a portion of the revenue generated by each ton of cargo that passes through the waterway goes to education and social programs.
从1979到2004年实行改革开放这27年里，中国发生了巨大的变化。 经济每年增长9.4%，居民消费每年增长7%，进出口每年增长16.7%。2004年国民经济总产值达1.6494 万亿美元，进出口总额达1.1548万亿美元。我们已经基本上建立了社会主义市场经济。我们的生产力和综合国力在不断提高。社会各项事业蓬勃发展，人民生活实现了从温饱到小康这一历史性的飞跃。
The past 27 years of reform and opening up have brought about tremendous changes from 1979 to 2004, on annual average, the Chinese economy grew by 9.4%, consumption by 7%, and import and export by 16.7%. In 2004, the country’s GDP topped US $ 1.6494 trillion. Total import and export volume reached US$ 1.1548 trillion. We have basically established a socialist market economy. Our productivity and overall national strength are constantly growing. Various social undertakings are flourishing and the historic leap in the people’s livelihood from a subsistence level to moderate prosperity is realized on the whole.
Under the new circumstances of accelerated economic globalization, a major strategic issue deserving our close attention is how to maintain sustained,
rapid, coordinated and sound economic and social development by adapting to China’s reality, seizing opportunities and coping with challenges. After years exploration and practice, we have found a path to development that comforts to China’s reality and the trend of times and reflects the wishes of the people. This is the road of Chinese socialism with Chinese characteristics. We will stride forward unswervingly along this road.
sanitation. It also recommends that foreign aid be more directed toward these problems. Clearly, this approach relies heavily on government intervention,
something Bjorkman readily acknowledged. But there are some market-based approaches as well.
By offering cut-rate connections to poor people to the water mainline, the private water utility in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, has steadily increased access to clean water, according to the agency’s report. A subsidy may not even be necessary, despite the agency’s proposals, if a country can harness the economic benefits of providing clean water.
People who receive clean water are much less likely to die from water-borne diseases - a common malady in the developing world - and much more likely to enjoy long, productive, taxpaying lives that can benefit their host countries. So if a government is trying to raise financing to invest in new infrastructure, it might find receptive ears in private credit markets - as long as it can harness the return. Similarly, private companies may calculate that it is worth bringing clean water to an area if its residents are willing to pay back the investment over many years. In the meantime, some local solutions are being found. In Thailand, Bjorkman said, some small communities are taking challenges like water access upon themselves. "People organize themselves in groups to leverage what little resources they have to help their communities," he said. "That’s especially true out in the rural areas. They invest their money in revolving funds and saving schemes, and they invest themselves to improve their villages. "It is not always easy to take these solutions and replicate them in other countries, though. Assembling a broad menu of different approaches can be the first step in finding the right solution for a given region or country.
Section 2 Chinese-English Translation ( 50 points )
Translate the following passage into English.
1. 英译汉：文章来源为美国国务院网站，原文标题为：Beaverton: Oregon’s Most Diverse City Stroll through the farmers’ market and you will hear a plethora of languages and see a rainbow of faces. Drive down Canyon Road and stop for halal meat or Filipino pork belly at adjacent markets. Along the highway, browse the aisles of a giant Asian supermarket stocking fresh napa cabbage and mizuna or fresh kimchi. Head toward downtown and you’ll see loncheras — taco trucks — on street corners and hear Spanish bandamusic. On the city’s northern edge, you can sample Indian chaat.
Welcome to Beaverton, a Portland suburb that is home to Oregon’s fastest growing
immigrant population. Once a rural community, Beaverton, population 87,000, is now the sixth largest city in Oregon — with immigration rates higher than those of Portland, Oregon’s largest city.
Best known as the world headquarters for athletic shoe company Nike, Beaverton has
changed dramatically over the past 40 years. Settled by immigrants from northern Europe in the 19th century, today it is a place where 80 languages from Albanian to Urdu are spoken in the public schools and about 30 percent of students speak a language besides English, according to English as a Second Language program director Wei Wei Lou.
Beaverton’s wave of new residents began arriving in the 1960s, with Koreans and Tejanos (Texans of Mexican origin), who were the first permanent Latinos. In 1960, Beaverton’s population of Latinos and Asians was less than 0.3 percent. By 2000, Beaverton had
proportionately more Asian and Hispanic residents than the Portland metro area. Today, Asians comprise 10 percent and Hispanics 11 percent of Beaverton’s population.
Mayor Denny Doyle says that many in Beaverton view the immigrants who are rapidly
reshaping Beaverton as a source of enrichment. “Citizens here especially in the arts and culture community think it’s fantastic that we have all these different possibilities here,” he says.
Gloria Vargas, 50, a Salvadoran immigrant, owns a popular small restaurant, Gloria’s Secret Café, in downtown Beaverton. “I love Beaverton,” she says. “I feel like I belong here.” Her mother moved her to Los Angeles as a teenager in 1973, and she moved Oregon in 1979. She landed a coveted vendor spot in the Beaverton Farmers Market in 1999. Now in addition to
running her restaurant, she has one of the most popular stalls there, selling up to 200 Salvadoran tamales — wrapped in banana leaves rather than corn husks — each Saturday. “Once they buy my food, they always come back for more,” she says.
“It’s pretty relaxed here,” says Taj Suleyman, 28, born and raised in Lebanon, and recently transplanted to Beaverton to start a job working with immigrants from many countries. Half Middle Eastern and half African, Suleyman says he was attracted to Beaverton specifically because of its diversity. He serves on a city-sponsored Diversity Task Force set up by Mayor Doyle.
Mohammed Haque, originally from Bangladesh, finds Beaverton very welcoming. His
daughter, he boasts, was even elected her high school’s homecoming queen.
South Asians such as Haque have transformed Bethany, a neighborhood north of Beaverton. It is dense with immigrants from Gujarat, a state in India and primary source for the first wave of Beaverton’s South Asian immigrants.
The first wave of South Asian immigrants to Beaverton, mostly Gujaratis from India, arrived in the 1960s and 1970s, when the motel and hotel industry was booming. Many bought small hotels and originally settled in Portland, and then relocated to Beaverton for better schools and bigger yards. The second wave of South Asians arrived during the high-tech boom of the 1980s, when the software industry, and Intel and Tektronix, really took off.
Many of Beaverton’s Asians converge at Uwajimaya, a 30,000-square-foot supermarket near central Beaverton. Bernie Capell, former special events coordinator at Uwajimaya, says that many come to shop for fresh produce every day. But the biggest group of shoppers at Uwajimaya, she adds, are Caucasians.
Beaverton’s Asian population boasts a sizable number of Koreans, who began to arrive in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
According to Ted Chung, a native of Korea and Beaverton resident since 1978, three things stand out about his fellow Korean immigrants. Upon moving to Beaverton, they join a Christian church — often Methodist or Presbyterian — as a gathering place; they push their children to excel in school; and they shun the spotlight.
Chung says he and his fellow Korean émigrés work hard as small businessmen — owning groceries, dry cleaners, laundromats, delis, and sushi shops — and are frugal so they can send their children to a leading university.
Most recently, immigrants from Central and South America, as well as refugees from Iraq and Somalia, have joined the Beaverton community.
Many Beaverton organizations help immigrants.
The Beaverton Resource Center helps all immigrants with health and literacy services. The Somali Family Education Center helps Somalis and other African refugees to get settled. And one Beaverton elementary school even came up with the idea of a “sew in”— parents of students sewing together — to welcome Somali Bantu parents and bridge major cultural differences.
Historically white churches, such as Beaverton First United Methodist Church, offer
immigration ministries. And Beaverton churches of all denominations host Korean- or
Beaverton’s Mayor Doyle wants refugee and immigrant leaders to participate in the town’s decision-making. He set up a Diversity Task Force whose mission is “to build inclusive and equitable communities in the City of Beaverton.” The task force is working to create a multicultural community center for Beavertonians of all backgrounds.
The resources and warm welcome that Beaverton gives immigrants are reciprocated in the affection that many express for their new home.
Kaltun Caynan, 40, a Somali woman who came to Beaverton in 2001 fleeing civil war, is an outreach coordinator for the Somali Family Education Center. “I like it so much,” she said, cheerfully. “Nobody discriminate[s against] me, everybody smiling at me.”
LECCO, Italy — Each morning, about 450 students travel along 17 school bus routes to 10 elementary schools in this lakeside city at the southern tip of Lake Como. There are zero school buses.
In 2003, to confront the triple threats of childhood obesity, local traffic jams and — most important — a rise in global greenhouse gases abetted by car emissions, an environmental group here proposed a retro-radical concept: children should walk to school.
They set up a piedibus (literally foot-bus in Italian) — a bus route with a driver but no
vehicle. Each morning a mix of paid staff members and parental volunteers in fluorescent yellow vests lead lines of walking students along Lecco’s twisting streets to the schools’ gates, Pied Piper-style, stopping here and there as their flock expands.
At the Carducci School, 100 children, or more than half of the students, now take walking buses. Many of them were previously driven in cars. Giulio Greppi, a 9-year-old with shaggy blond hair, said he had been driven about a third of a mile each way until he started taking the piedibus. “I get to see my friends and we feel special because we know it’s good for the environment,” he said.
Although the routes are each generally less than a mile, the town’s piedibuses have so far eliminated more than 100,000 miles of car travel and, in principle, prevented thousands of tons of greenhouse gases from entering the air, Dario Pesenti, the town’s environment auditor, estimates.
The number of children who are driven to school over all is rising in the United States and Europe, experts on both continents say, making up a sizable chunk of transportation’s
contribution to greenhouse-gas emissions. The “school run” made up 18 percent of car trips by urban residents of Britain last year, a national survey showed.
In 1969, 40 percent of students in the United States walked to school; in 2001, the most recent year data was collected, 13 percent did, according to the federal government’s National Household Travel Survey.
Lecco’s walking bus was the first in Italy, but hundreds have cropped up elsewhere in Europe and, more recently, in North America to combat the trend.
Towns in France, Britain and elsewhere in Italy have created such routes, although few are as extensive and long-lasting as Lecco’s.
Section 1: English-Chinese Translation (50 points)
Jane Goodall was already on a London dock in March 1957 when she realized that her passport was missing. In just a few hours, she was due to depart on her first trip to Africa. A school friend had moved to a farm outside Nairobi and, knowing Goodall’s childhood dream was to live among the African wildlife, invited her to stay with the family for a while. Goodall, then 22, saved for two years to pay for her passage to Kenya: waitressing, doing secretarial work, temping at the post office in her hometown, Bournemouth, on England’s southern coast. Now all this was for naught, it seemed.
It’s hard not to wonder how subsequent events in her life — rather consequential as they have turned out to be to conservation, to science, to our sense of ourselves as a species — might have unfolded differently had someone not found her passport, along with an itinerary from Cook’s, the travel agency, folded inside, and delivered it to the Cook’s office. An agency representative, documents in hand, found her on the dock. “Incredible,” Goodall told me last month, recalling that day. “Amazing.”
Within two months of her arrival, Goodall met the paleontologist Louis Leakey — Nairobi was a small town for its white population in those days — and he immediately offered her a job at the natural-history museum where he was curator. He spent much of the next three years testing her capacity for repetitive work.
He believed in a hypothesis first put forth by Charles Darwin that humans and chimpanzees share an evolutionary ancestor. Close study of chimpanzees in the wild, he thought, might tell us something about that common progenitor. He was, in other words, looking for someone to live among Africa’s wild animals. One night, he told Goodall that he knew just the place where she could do it: Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve, in the British colony of Tanganyika (now Tanzania).
In July 1960, Goodall boarded a boat and after a few hours motoring over the
warm, deep waters of Lake Tanganyika, she stepped onto the pebbly beach at Gombe. Her finding, published in Nature in 1964, that chimpanzees use tools — extracting insects from a termite mound with leaves of grass — drastically and forever altered humanity’s understanding of itself; man was no longer the natural world’s only user of tools.
After two and a half decades of living out her childhood dream, Goodall made an abrupt career shift, from scientist to conservationist.
Scientists have found the first evidence that briny water flowed on the surface of Mars as recently as last summer, a paper published on Monday showed, raising the possibility that the planet could support life.
Although the source and the chemistry of the water is unknown, the discovery will change scientists’ thinking about whether the planet that is most like Earth in the solar system could support present day microbial life.
The discovery was made when scientists developed a new technique to analyze chemical maps of the surface of Mars obtained by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.
They found telltale fingerprints of salts that form only in the presence of water in narrow channels cut into cliff walls throughout the planet’s equatorial region.
The slopes appear during the warm summer months on Mars, then vanish when the temperatures drop. Scientists suspected the streaks were cut by flowing water, but previously had been unable to make the measurements.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter makes its measurements during the hottest part of the Martian day, so scientists believed any traces of water, or fingerprints from hydrated minerals, would have evaporated.
Also, the chemical-sensing instrument on the orbiting spacecraft cannot home in on details as small as the narrow streaks, which typically are less than 16 feet wide. But Ojha and colleagues created a computer program that could scrutinize
individual pixels. That data was then correlated with high-resolution images of the streaks. Scientists concentrated on the widest streaks and came up with a 100 percent match between their locations and detections of hydrated salts.
Section 2: Chinese-English Translation (50 points)
In the final analysis, the population issue is an issue of development. We should pay great attention to the relationship between the change in population and sustainable development, and give full consideration to the relationship between the quantity, quality, structure and distribution of the population. Inparticular, we should focus on the impact of the change in the population structure on economic and social development, incorporate the population issue in to the national plan for economic and social development and make sure that population growth is in keeping with the economic and social development as well as resources and the environment.
Massive population migration has become an important force driving social transformation and economic development, but it has also made families smaller and more diversified, and members of many live in separation. Population migration and change in family structure pose a challenge to public services and social governance. we should make great efforts to ensure equal access to basic public services among the migrant people and help them get equal opportunities to live and develop in cities and towns,letting them enjoy public resources and social welfare services and participate in political, economic, social and cultural activities on an equal footing,become independent economically, gain due social identity and achieve cultural integration.
The National Art Museum of China (NAMOC) is a national art museum dedicated to collection, research and exhibitions of modern and contemporary artistic works in China. NAMOC is a national cultural landmark after founding of New China. The main building, roofed with yellow glazed tiles and surrounded by corridors and
pavilions, features the styles of ancient Chinese attics and traditional architecture. The building, with 17 exhibition halls covers an area of more than 18,000 square meters. It boasts an exhibition area of 8,300 square meters.
The museum houses more than 100,000 pieces of various collections, most of which are representative works of different periods and great art works of Chinese art masters from the end of the 19th century till today, constituting art development history since the beginning of modern China. Collections also include some ancient paintings and calligraphy works, foreign artistic works as well
Since its establishment, the museum has held thousands of various influential exhibitions to become an important platform of artistic exchange between China and the world.
NAMOC focuses on expanding public service contents and means through its website and “digital museum” project. The museum has upgraded its official website for 3 times and set up over 10 art databases, which have become a platform of releasing,searching and sharing art information.