Facing Business Challenges at Holiday Inn Worldwide
Sending Invitations Across the Globe
In the 1960s a family vacation in the United States usually meant loading the kids into the station wagon and driving off down the highway toward a tourist destination. And when weary vacationers needed to rest for the night, they often looked for the familiar green signs with “Holiday Inn” written in script and a colorful star for emphasis. All across the United States, this sign welcomed travelers to Holliday Inn hotels with promises of quality, comfort, and value.
By 1968 Holiday Inn was so well known in the United States that it began opening franchises in Europe. In 1973 the company opened its first Asian hotel in Japan, and in 1984 it became the first U.S.-based hotel to open for business in China. For 25 years Holiday Inn enjoyed great success in the European and Asian markets, opening 600 hotels and earning a reputation as upscale , professional, and well run.
However, in the 1980s Holiday Inn’s fortunes were beginning to fade in the United States. Many
of the franchises were outdated and substandard . Family vacationers were being replaced by business travelers as the hotel industry’s bread and butter , and aggressive competitors with superior marketing strategies were targeting this growing segment . In addition, overbuilding had set off a wave of price discounting . As a result, both Holiday Inn’s share of the lodging market and its image took a nosedive .
But in the 1990s this icon of the U.S. highway was brought back to life after being purchased by Bass PLC, a British conglomerate. Bass moved quickly to make Holiday Inn Worldwide the leading hotel chain, not just in the United States but around the globe. In the United States, Holiday Inn pursued a strategy that segmented the market into different types of travelers and created a unique type of lodging for each group. Under names like Holiday Inn Express, Holiday Inn Select, Sunspree Resorts, and Crowne Plaza, the company offered different accommodations and amenities at different prices to suit the diverse needs of business and leisure travelers. Combined with a campaign to bring all of the franchises back up to a high standard of quality, the strategy quickly began to pay off.
Even so, the top brass at Holiday Inn Worldwide knows that the greatest growth potential is not in the saturated U.S. market but in the evolving markets of Europe, Asia, and Latin America. With increasing tourism and business development in these regions, the demand for comfortable, consistent, and affordable accommodations is booming . Holiday Inn needs a strategy for tapping this vast potential. Would the strategies that fueled Holiday Inn’s turnaround in the United States bring similar results internationally? Large-scale construction of new hotels will play a major role, so what kinds of hotels should they be? How can the company best meet the needs of a wide variety of international travelers? Should Holiday Inn expand through franchises or by opening
company-owned hotels? Should the same type of promotion be used for the entire global market or should it be localized to each geographic area? These are questions that Raymond Lewis faces daily as vice president of marketing. If you were Lewis, how would you answer them? Meeting Business Challenges at Holiday Inn Worldwide
Part of Raymond Lewis’s job is to monitor and predict changes in the ever-evolving global
market . Among the trends he has observed is the increasing similarity between the needs and desires expressed by consumers and businesses around the world in certain product categories such as lodging. On the other hand, Lewis knows that various countries and cultures approach purchases differently, and that people of various cultures respond differently to product promotion . His challenge, then, is to figure out how to satisfy both the similar and the diverse needs of each new market.
Lewis also knows that all travelers, regardless of where they are from or where they are going, share many of the same desires, fears, and expectations when they are traveling. They may not speak the same language or live the same lives while at home, but when they’re on the road, all travelers are (1) away from home and out of their personal comfort zones, (2) in different and often unfamiliar surroundings, and (3) subject to the same hassles and hardships. Therefore, Holiday Inn focuses on delivering a consistent product around the world. This way, whether the hotel is in South Korea, India, Buenos Aires , or Israel, travelers know that they will always receive a comfortable room at a fair price.
In addition, the strategy of segmenting the market by types of travelers that proved so successful in the United States also works abroad, but in a different way. Segmentation in the hotel industry is a relatively new concept in Europe, and in Asia it is virtually nonexistent. This is largely because in many of the developing nations of Asia, travel has only recently become an option for the majority of people. As a result, not every type of Holiday Inn hotel will be successful in every country. The company must know each market very well before it decides which type of hotel to open. Does the area draw mainly tourists or business travelers? How long do visitors usually stay? Do people from surrounding areas travel often? What types of accommodations do competitors offer in the area? By knowing the answers to questions like these, Holiday Inn is able to decide which type of hotel will best serve the needs of travelers to the area. For example, the company opened a SunSpree Resort in Arequipa, Peru, close to Machu Pichu, a popular international tourist destination. Holiday Inn’s management team feels that Sunspree has a great chance for success in this location because the hotel caters to tourists.
In the same way, Holiday Inn management expects a mix of business and leisure travelers to visit Seoul, South Korea. Therefore, the new Holiday Inn Seoul appeals to a broad range of travelers by offering a business center, banquet facilities , four restaurants, a fitness center , and a gift shop. Just as in its early days of expansion in the United States, Holiday Inn is accomplishing its international expansion through a mix of wholly owned facilities and franchises, depending on the availability of resources and potential for profit in each local market. Although franchising agreements place less risk on Holiday Inn Worldwide, they also require the company to give up more control than it would by opening wholly owned facilities. However, franchises must adhere
to strict quality standards if they intend to operate under Holiday Inn’s famous name.
Lewis and his team also recognize that even though travelers have similar expectations for the quality and value they get in a hotel, sometimes they like to stay in places that don’t feel like hotel
chains. Therefore, the company has opened hotels in Europe, Australia, and South Africa that have a style and character unique to their locations. In this way, Holiday Inn is able to tailor its global product to local markets.
Nonetheless, Holiday Inn’s promotion strategy is decidedly global, regardless of which markets it enters. Lewis bases the strategy on two themes: “Welcome” and “Stay with somebody you know.” Although the ad copy is translated when necessary, even the visual format is the same from country to country. Of course, cultural differences must be accommodated from time to time. For example, travelers in Britain preferred an ad that focused on a friendly doorman, whereas U.S. and German travelers preferred a more sentimental ad showing a businesswoman receiving a fax of a drawing from her child.
The inspiration for this global strategy came to Lewis, not surprisingly, while he was traveling. When boarding a plane at Dulles Airport outside of Washington, D.C., he passed a group of Russian teenagers gathered around a guitar player singing “Puff the Magic Dragon,” a folk song that was popular in the United States a few decades ago. This connection between cultures helped convince Lewis that the world’s people were alike in many ways, particularly in the field of
pleasure and business travel.
It remains to be seen how successful Holiday Inn’s global strategy will be in the long run . The company is off to a flying start. However, competitors such as Marriott and Choice Hotels are moving quickly to make sure Holiday Inn doesn’t outpace them in the hot new global markets. But one thing is sure, Lewis and the rest of the management team are not content with Holiday Inn being a leading hotel chain in the United States. They want Holiday Inn to be the leader around the world.
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The credit crunch
Saving the system
Oct 9th 2008
From The Economist print edition
At last a glimmer of hope, but more boldness is needed to avert a global economic catastrophe
CONFIDENCE is everything in finance. Until this week the politicians trying to tackle the credit crunch had done little to restore this essential ingredient. In America Congress dithered over the Bush administration’s $700 billion bail-out plan. In Europe governments have casually played beggar-my-neighbour politics, with countries launching deposit-guarantee schemes that destabilize banks elsewhere. This week, however, saw the first glimmers of a comprehensive global answer to the confidence gap.
One clear sign was an unprecedented co-ordinated interest-rate cut on October 8th by the world’s main central banks, including the Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, the Bank of England and (officially a coincidence) the People’s Bank of China. Various continental European countries also set about recapitalizing their banks. But the most astounding developments were in America and Britain. The Fed doubled the amount of money available to banks on a short-term basis to $900 billion and announced that it would buy unsecured commercial paper directly from corporate borrowers. More surprisingly, Gordon Brown’s government, hitherto the ditherer par excellence, produced the first systemic plan for dealing with the crisis, not just providing capital and short-term loans to banks but also offering to guarantee new debt for up to three years.
This is certainly progress, but it is not enough (see our extended finance section). The world’s finance ministers and central bankers, gathering in Washington, DC, this weekend for the annual meetings of the IMF and World Bank, should deliver a simple message: more will be done. The world economy is plainly in a poor state, but it could get a lot worse. This is a time to put dogma and politics to one side and concentrate on pragmatic answers. That means more government intervention and co-operation in the short term than taxpayers, politicians or indeed free-market newspapers would normally like.
If the panic that has choked the arteries of credit across the globe is not calmed soon, the danger will increase that output in rich economies will not simply shrink, but collapse. The same could happen in many emerging markets, especially those that rely on foreign capital. No country or industry would be spared from the equivalent of a global financial heart attack
The damage to the real economy is becoming apparent. In America consumer credit is now shrinking, and around 159,000 Americans lost their jobs in September, the most since 2003. Some industries are hurting badly: car sales are at their lowest level in 16 years as would-be buyers are unable to get credit. General Motors has temporarily shut some of its factories in Europe. Across the globe forward-looking indicators, such as surveys of purchasing managers, are horribly gloomy.
If the odds of a rich-world recession have risen towards a near certainty, the emerging world as a whole is slowing rather than slumping. China still seems fairly resilie
nt. Taken as a whole, though, growth in the world economy seems likely to slow below 3% next year—a pace that many count as recessionary. So the prospects are grim enough, but a continuing credit drought would make this much worse.
The idea of a comprehensive solution sounds simple, if expensive. But politicians have found it hard to grasp. Europeans have remained stubbornly wedded to the notion that the mess was “Made in America”; John McCain and Barack Obama talk as if it was all down to the greed of modern bankers. But financial excesses existed centuries before a brick had been laid on Wall Street. As our special report this week lays out, today’s bust—and the bubble that preceded it—had several causes besides dodgy lending, including a tide of cheap money from emerging economies, outdated regulation, government distortions and poor supervision. Many of these failures were as evident outside America as within it.
With a flawed diagnosis of the causes of the crisis, it is hardly surprising that many policymakers have failed to understand its progression. Today’s failure of confidence is based on three related issues: the solvency of banks, their ability to fund themselves in illiquid markets and the health of the real economy. The bursting of the housing bubble has led to hefty credit losses: most Western financial institutions are short of capital and some are insolvent. But liquidity is a more urgent problem. America’s decision last month to let Lehman Brothers fail—and the losses that implied to money-market funds that held its debt—prompted a global run on wholesale credit markets. It has become hard for banks, even healthy ones, to find finance; large companies with healthy cash flows have also been cut off from all but the shortest-term financing. That has increased worries about the real economy, which itself adds to the worries about banks’ solvency.
This analysis suggests that governments must attack all three concerns at once. The priority, in terms of stemming the panic, is to unblock clogged credit markets. In most cases that means using central banks as an alternative source of short-term cash. This week the Fed took another step in that direction: by buying commercial paper, it is now in effect lending direct to companies. The British approach is equally bold. Alongside the Bank of England’s provision of short-term cash, the Treasury says it will sell guarantees for as much as ￡250 billion ($430 billion) of new short-term and medium-term debts issued by the banks. That is risky: if left for any length of time, those pledges give banks an incentive to behave recklessly. But a temporary guarantee system offers the best chance of stemming the panic, and if it were internationally co-ordinated it would be both more credible and less risky than a collection of disparate national promises.
The second prong of a crisis-resolution strategy must aim to boost banks’ capital.
A new IMF report suggests Western banks need some $675 billion of new equity to prevent banks from rapidly reducing the number of loans on their books and hurting the real economy. Although there is plenty of private capital sloshing around, there is a chicken-and-egg problem: nobody wants to buy equity in an industry without enough capital. It is becoming abundantly clear that government funds—or at least government intervention—will be necessary to catalyse the rebuilding of banks’ balance sheets. Initially, America focused more on buying tainted assets from banks; now it seems keen
er on the “European” approach of injecting capital into their banks. Some degree of divergence is inevitable, but more co-ordination is needed.
Even in the best of circumstances, the consequences of the biggest asset and credit bubble in history will linger. But if the panic is stemmed, it could be a manageable problem, cushioned by the economic strength in the emerging world. Efforts at international economic co-operation have a patchy record. In the 1980s the Plaza and Louvre accords, designed respectively to push the dollar down and to prop it up, met with mixed success. Today’s problems are deeper and more countries are involved. But the stakes are also much higher.
导读:本论文是一篇关于商务英语经济类文章的翻译技巧的优秀论文范文,对正在写有关于翻译论文的写作者有一定的参考和指导作用。elfare state attempts to give all this to every member of the
community的动词attempts to give，还有类似的designed to secure和aims to prevent，可译为并列形式“设法给予、旨在保障”。 3 结语 经济类文章的特点是行文逻辑多按时间顺序、使用句式简单，但同时出现大量经济术语和专业表达，因此，所使用的措辞和一般
关键词:经济 商务英语 翻译技巧
经济类文章常见的专业术语多为名词性结构，如财政收入、外贸进出口总额、工业总产值。经济术语十分广泛，通常翻译人员要大量接触同类文章、积累丰富的经济术语，以便应对实际翻译过程中频繁出现的术语。但翻译人员在接触不同经济材料时也会遇上未接触过的术语，因而在翻译过程中容易产生障碍。但只要明白经济术语多为复合名词词组，便可采用分译法先拆分成独立单词、再组合成词组。例如，财政收入拆分为“财政”，译为finance，再译“收入”income，然后根据英语语法合并为financial income或financial revenue。再如“外贸进出口总额”可拆成“外贸、进出口、总额”，再把前两
项意思接近的的foreign和import and export二者取一，组合为import and export total volume。当然在经济领域人们早有约定俗成的常用词组，但翻译人员在没有对所有专业术语进行记忆的情况下，采用拆分翻译可以在一定程度上解决专业术语的翻译障碍。
和时政新闻类文章相比较，经济类文章很少出现复杂的从句，句子间内在逻辑一般按时间先后顺序排列，因此常使用简单句，并有其常用的短语句式。在此列举常见的几例典型句子。其一为描述性句子，如，社会消费品零售总额1471亿元，平均每年增长9.9%。在此简单句中，“平均每年增长„„”在同类文章中频繁出现，翻译人员可采用拆分商务英语经济类文章的翻译技巧由专注毕业论文与职称论文的http:www.zbjy.cn提供,转载请保留网址.翻译法，译为“with an annual growth rate of”。其二为经济排名，如，不少重要产品产量
跃居世界首位。外汇储备居世界第二位。两例句均讲述排名，常用译法为“comes fit in the world、ranking second in the world、take the third place in the globe”。其三是数据比较，数据比较
常以倍数形式表达。例如，财政收入大幅度增加，2001年比1990年增长了6.1倍。在倍数的翻译上注意代词的使用，例句中倍数的表达可译为while the growth in 2001 is 6.1 times higher than that in
经济类文章的内容和描述对象均比较宏观，多数谈及国家或国际间的经济现象，所以除了经济数据比较大之外，还有所采用的措辞都十分专业与正式，和一般的生活用语有明显的区别。翻译人员在翻译的时候要注意把握好用词专业化这点。以动词为例，经济类文章句子简洁导致动词的采用多为并列形式。例如，例句A welfare state attempts to give all this to every member of the community的动词attempts to give，还有类似的designed to secure和aims to prevent，可译为并列形式“设法给予、旨在保障”。
摘 要: 基于商务英语的特殊性, 正确理解商务英语需要具备各方面的知识以及比较扎实的语言基础。文章从标题、词汇、遣词造句、篇章结构等方面分析商务英语的语言运用特 点, 然后根据其特点提出了提高学生商务英语阅读能力的建议, 以期达到有效改善商 务英语教学效果的目标。
关键词: 商务英语; 文章阅读; 语言特点; 专业背景
(一)商务英语文章的标题运用特点标题即为文章的题目, 用来简明扼要地向学生揭示文章的主要内容。商务报刊文章的标题有其鲜明的特色, 它就像一个产品的商标, 有画龙点睛的作用。如果学生能对商务报刊文章题目的构成形式与特色有一定的了解, 将有助于理解文章内容以及掌握文章的主旨大意。商务报刊文章题目具有以下特点:
( 1) Long L ive the Revo lu tion革命万岁
( 2) G loba lW a rm ing H as Bush on theH o t Seat全球趋暖使布什成了热锅上的蚂蚁 ( 3) TheMu tua l FundM ess搞的一团糟的共同基金
2. 商务报刊题目经常采用非谓语动词、形容词、副词、名词和介词短语等浓缩形式 ( 4) E conom y Terro rized 受惊吓的美国经济( 过去分词)
( 5) A New Wo rld to Conquer 即将征服的新世界( 不定式表示将来)
( 6) V ictory at a Price 付出代价的胜利(介词短语)
句型可分为陈述标题、疑问标题和引述标题,等等。为了使言语简洁或强调重点, 标题中可使用逗号、冒号、引号、破折号、问号、叹号, 但一般不使用句号。
( 7) Ch ina Appo ints Its First Governor in W orld Bank 中国任命第一位驻世界银行代表(陈述标题)
( 8) Is G loba lization S low ing Dow n? 全球化趋势在放缓吗? (疑问标题) ( 9) Food Shortage is a / M inefield, European Union
W arns A frica 欧盟提醒非洲国家, / 粮食短缺是个雷区(引述标题)
( 10 ) M&A: Com pan ies Shopped) Now They . ve Dropped. 并购: 昔日大肆采购, 近日股票狂跌(M&A: m erger and acqu isition兼并和收购) (二)商务英语的词汇运用特点
商务英语是商务文化群体中所特有的专门用途英语, 是英语的一种功能变体, 其与普通英语的差异, 不仅表现在目的和意义方面, 而且表现在词汇运用方面。
商务英语属于一种商务领域的专门用途语言,因此, 其语言运用的最大特征就是专业名词和术语较多, 而且许多常用词被赋予特殊的含义。比如在普通英语中, credit的意思是/ 信用, 声望, 但在商务英语中, 它指的是/赊账, 贷方, 信用证。此外, 由于商务交往中省时省力的经济原则的实际需要, 商务专业术语也会以约定俗成的缩略词的形式出现。例如: B2C: business- to- custom e r企业对顾客的电子商务L /C: letter o f cred it 信用证 ASAP: as soon as possib le 尽快
商务英语一般用词简洁, 语义明确, 尤其是有鲜明特色的量化语言表达方式是其用词方面一个显著的文体特点。比如在报刊商务文章中用来表示经济数据或行情变化等习惯用语的词十
spurt突升 skyrocke t暴涨
edge down缓降 dum p狂泻
hed跌落 plung e猛跌表示/趋平或平稳:
stand /m a inta in at 数量维持在
ho ld steady 持稳
hover /stay around 徘徊表示/波动:
ups and downs/h ighs and low s 兴衰/起伏
boom s and burst 盛衰
总的来讲, 英语报刊商务文章的语言特点是平实严谨的, 但是在很多情况下, 这类文章也常
( 11) Since she cam e into power, th is industrial g iant has been runn ing in b lack. 自她上任伊始, 这个工业巨头持续盈利。( be in the black和be in the
red这两个术语都来自于记账时所用墨水的颜色。黑字象征盈余, 红字象征亏欠, 称赤字。)
( 12) The carnag e in stock funds) the b iggest money -spinne rs for m anagem ent com panies) is
fa r blood ie r. 股票型基金市场内的竞争更为惨烈, 而股票型基金曾经是基金市场中最赚钱
的买卖。( sp in指纺纱, 这里出现的moneyspinners喻指最赚钱的买卖或企业。)
和说明成分, 复杂冗长的句子因此产生, 这也就增加了理解难度。有时, 甚至一个句子就是
一个段落。但是尽管句子偏长, 句式却是基本固定的。学生在理解这些长句的时候, 最关键
的是要找出句子的主干部分, 分清主从句, 并且理清句子每个组成部分之间的关系, 了解每
( 13) Observ ers say re fo rm s that a t first sight appear to be relatively sim ple have turned out to
be a n ightm are because individual countries are so re luctant to rem ove any barriers that m ight
reduce their im portance in the overa ll financial sy stem. 在辨别这个句子主干时学生会发现它的一级主干是/ Observers say reforms that,0, 即一个含
的主干确认之后, 接着再看一级成分)宾语从句的部分, 即/ say0 后面的部分; 这个宾语从句
的主干是/ reforms, have turned ou t to be a nightmare because,0, 这是一个含有原因状语的主
从结构, 宾语从句的意思为: / 改革,,已变为一个噩梦, 这是由于接着, 宾语从句的主语/
reform s后面又是一个由/ that0 引导的定语从句, 即/ at first sight appear to be relatively simp le0 充当/ re forms的定语。从字面意思来看, 不难理解作者要表达的是:/本来看起来相对简
单的改革,再来看后半句, / because0 引导的分句充当整个宾语从句的原因状语, 解释了改革
由/ 相对简到/ 一场噩梦0的原因是/ ind iv idua l countries are so re luctant to remove any
了一个/ that0 引导的定语从句/ that m ight reduce the ir importance in the overall financ ial
做可能会降低他们本身在整个金融体系中的重要性最后, 理顺逻辑关系后, 我们可知整个句子可译为:
从文章的篇章结构来看, 商务英语文章讲究结构完整, 脉络清晰。在阅读时要注意各个部分的衔接和呼应, 具体来说可分为以下几点: 注意文章的正副标题及正文中的小标题; 注意段落的主题句,一般来说, 此类文章中每一个段落都围绕一个中心意思展开, 而且每个段落一般都有一个概括此段大意的句子, 即为主题句; 注意把握文章中出现逻辑关系的连词, 如a lthough, therefore, furthermore,how ever等, 它们是体现上下文之间逻辑关系的标志; 有时甚至连这些字眼也没有, 而是暗含在省略、标点或语序安排中。这些微妙之处需要学生阅读 完全文之后再细心体会全文, 加深对篇章结构和主题大意的理解。
商务英语文章着重论述财经事件, 脱离不了经济的众多专业领域。阅读此类文章, 具备专业背景知识是至关重要的, 这将有助于我们加深对文章的理解, 甚至能在一定程度上弥补语言能力的不足;而如果对这些知识缺乏了解, 即使语言功底很出色, 也可能错误理解字句含义, 或者也只是局限于读懂字面意思, 无法充分透彻地理解文章内容。
( 14) The corpo rate charter a lso author izes the corporation to issue and se ll shares o f stock, or
ownersh ip in the co rporation,to enab le the co rpo ra tion to ra isem oney.
误译: 公司营业执照授权公司发行和销售股票, 认购公司的所有权为公司筹措资金。 分析: corporate charter是/ 公司章程, 而不是/ 营业执照。营业执照是不可能涉及公司发行股票的业务, 而只是规定经营范围。这里显然是由于缺乏对专业背景知识不了解导致的错误理解。正译: 公司章程授权公司发行和销售股票, 转让公司所有权, 以便为公司筹措资金。 ( 15) D irect investm ent takes place w hen contro l fo llows the investm ent. Th is can amoun t to
a sm a ll percentage of the equ ity o f the com pany be ing acqu ired, perhaps even as little as
10 percent.误译: 当投资受到控制时, 企业往往采用直接投资, 但这种投资只占企业所得资产净值的一小部分, 甚至只占10%。
分析: 这样的理解自相矛盾。既然投资收到控制, 连间接投资都要控制, 更何况直接投资。这是缺乏应有的背景知识所致。Control此处并非控制, 而是管理。
正译: 投资以后, 随即参与管理, 就是直接投资。这种投资可以是企业可获得股本的一小部分, 甚至可少到10%。
( 16) An inv itation by JackW e lch to p itch in front o fGEc s mo st accom plished executives is
likew inn ing an O lymp icm adal in GEcs intense lo cker- room cu lture.
这个例句借用了比喻的修辞格, 饱含了作者对于JackWe lch的赞誉和钦佩。理解该句需要把握两个难点/ p itch0 和/ locker - room culture。/ Pitch0的本意是/ 投掷0, 这里理解成/ de liver a speech0 (致辞); 而/ locker- room cu lture0 (更衣室文化)又是什么意思呢? 在美国文化中, /更衣室文化通常有两种解释) ) ) 同性恋者在同一个更衣室中的暧昧关系, 或者是指比赛前后运动员在更衣室中分享成功的喜悦、总结失败的教训以及相互鼓励团结协作的运动精神。结合本句话的语言环境, 这里我们应取第二种含义。应译为: 员工能有幸被韦尔奇邀请在通用电器最卓越的管理层前致辞, 无异于在奥运会赛场上喜获奖牌, 这是通用电器浓郁的/ 更
如上文所述, 学生在商务英语文章阅读过程中, 如果词汇把握不当或不能灵活运用, 将造成理解上的扭曲; 如果忽视文章标题的作用, 必会枉时耗力; 如果长句的逻辑关系无法理顺, 则会深陷理解的泥潭, 乏身无术; 如果缺乏专业背景知识的积累, 文章的内容可能会变得晦涩难懂, 面目可憎。而这种种难点都要求教师在商务英语阅读教学过程中加强对学生语言能力、知识面和专业面的锻炼。在商务英语文章学习中, 应做到以下几点: 扩大学生词汇量, 进一步夯实学生的商务英语基本知识; 拓展学生的知识领域, 经常涉猎与国际商务知识有关的政治、文化、历史、科技等方面的知识; 指导学生阅读国内外有代表性的英文经贸报纸杂志,使学生对文章的形式和内容有更广泛的接触, 并对文章背后的文化有更深刻的了解。 参考文献:
[ 1] 陈苏东, 陈建平. 商务英语阅读[M ]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 2002. [ 2] 陈苏东, 陈建平. 商务英语翻译(英译汉) [M ]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 2002. [ 3] 于大羽. 商务英语阅读教程( 技能篇) [M ]. 北京: 中国经济出版社, 2003. [ 4] 曾佳月. 浅析商务英语阅读的一些难点[ J] . 安徽科技信息, 2003, ( 2): 25- 27.
[ 5] 周学艺. 英美报刊文章阅读( 精选本) [M ]. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2001.