He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.
2）have + been +现在分词，构成完成进行时，例如：
I have been studying English for ten years.
English has been taught in China for many years.
一． 用is , am, are , , do , does , 来填空 1. He _____ from a small town in North China. 2. They ____ kind to us .
3. I _____ interested in playing football. 4. _____ you like swimming ?
5. _____ he go to school by bus every day? 6. ______ they do their homework every day? 7. _____ Tom good at maths?
8. ____ Sam and Tim like climbing trees? 9. _____ She busying doing her homework? 10. We _____ all middle school students. 二． 用 like 和 likes 填空
1. I _____ collecting stamps.
2. He _____ flying kites on sunny days. 3. They ______ running and jumping.
4. Jack ____ riding bicycles on summer days. 三． 把下列句子变成疑问句，并作肯定和否定的回答 1. He is the tallest students in our class. 2. They are running on the playground. 3. She can sing and dance. 4. They must get up early. 5. He may come here by train.
四．把下列句子变成疑问句，并作肯定和否定的回答 1. They speak English every day. 2. He speaks English every day. 3. The have a large room. 4. He has a large room.
五．区分下列哪些是主系表结构，那些是主谓宾结构 1. We are Chinese. 2. We study hard.
3. He is a good friend of my father. 4. He likes playing basketball.
5. They do well in drawing pictures.
六．用is, am, are, was , were, do, does , did 填空 1. He ____ my Chinese teacher. 2. They _____ from Canada.
3. I _____ taller than my sister. 4. She ____ a nurse five years ago.
5. They _____ very short ten years ago. 6. I ____ six years old eight years ago. 7. _____ they help you with your work? 8. _______ he go to the cinema on Sundays? 9. ______ they give you some useful books? 10. ______ he visit the school yesterday? 七．汉译英
1. 英语是我最喜欢的科目。 2. 他是我们的音乐老师。 4. 他们是我的叔叔们。
5. 五年前，他是一名邮递员。 6. 他每天吃面包。 7. 他们每天吃面包。
8. 他每天骑自行车去上学。 9. 我们每天骑自行车去上学。 10. 她昨天去看望了他的祖父母。
八． 用don’t 和doesn’t 及 didn’t填空 1. we ____ like playing computer games, he ____ like either. 2. She ______ like going shopping on Sundays. 3. They _____ study hard three years ago. 4. We _______ go to school yesterday.
5. Tom and Tim _____ like watering flowers. 6. These men _____ like smoking. 7. The dog _____ like eating bones.
8. I _____ have my own house two years ago. 九．把下列句子变成否定句和疑问句 1. He is a middle school student.
He isn’t a middle school student. Is he a middle school student?
2. She is the shortest in the class. 3. That is a difficult problem. 4. They are swimming in the river. 5. I am doing my homework.
6. She is drawing a picture now. 7. He can sing English songs.
8. They must get up early in the morning. 9. He will come to see us next month.
10. They are going to have a meeting next Monday. 十． 把下列句子变成否定句和疑问句
1. They go to school on foot every day. 2. He goes to school by bus every day. 3. They went to school on foot yesterday. 4. He went to school by bus yesterday. 5. They play football every Sunday. 6. They played football last Sunday.
7. They will give us a talk next Tuesday. 8. They have given us three talks so far.
9. They had given us three talks before they left.
10. He was doing his homework when his mother came home. 11. They were playing chess when the teacher came in. 十一。用下列动词的适当形式填空
1. There _________(be) three dogs under the tree. 2. They _________(have ) got three dictionaries.
3. He _________(read) a book when the telephone rang.
4. You had better _________(go) home at once. 2011.11.13
同一动词的各种形式 11.13 十二。写出下列动词的五种形式
原形 不定时 第三人称单数 过去式 现在分词 过去分词
jump to jump jumps jumped jumping jumped climb play dance open close
原形 不定时 第三人称单数 过去式 现在分词 过去分词
go to go goes went going gone come have do make take hear say read write sing draw sit stand lie run eat drink
1. It ______(be) an interesting story.
2. They ______(be) interested in playing football. 3. She ______(be) a middle aged woman. 4. He ______(be) doing his homework.
5. I ______(be) afraid I can’t go with there with you. 6. There ______(be) a book on the table. 7. There ______(be) two books on the table. 8. There ______(be) a meeting tomorrow. 9. There ______(be) a meeting yesterday. 10. I ______(be) a middle school student.
11. I ______(be) a primary school student five years
12. I ______(be) a high school student next year. 13. I ______(be) a middle school student for two and half
14. I ______(be) a middle school student two years
15. He said he ______(be) a college student in five
16. Look! They ______(be) walking across the street. 二．单选
1. They _______ here for eight years. A. were B. will be C. have been
2. What _____ the tree ____ in three years? A. will, be B. does ,be C. do , be 3. He ____ a teacher before I came here. A. have been B. had been C. is
4. He _____ a teacher since he came here. A. have been B. has been C. had been
5. He said there ____ a new school the next year. A. will be B. would be C. was
6. Tom and Sam ____ good friends three years ago. A. was B. were C. is 行为动词在八种时态中的表现
1. He _______ (go) to work by bus every day. 2. They ________ (go) to work by car every day. 3. He often ________ (help) us with our housework.
4. Tom and Tim usually ________ (play) basketball on
5. Look! She ________ (walk) on the grass.
6. It’s nine o’clock, The students ________ (have ) their
lessons. 7. He ________ (do) his homework at ten o’clock last night. 8. I _______(read) a book when the telephone rand. 9. Tim ________ (visit) his uncle next month.
10. He ________ () his homework before his mother came. 11. The train ________ () when we ran to the station. 二．单选
1. They often _____ to school on foot. A. go B. goes C. went
2. He usually _____ up at 6:00. A. get B. gets C. will get
3. Look! They _____ with a dog over there . A. play B. are playing C. is playing 4. He _____ us a talk tomorrow.
A. is giving B. give C. will give 5. He ______ here for ten years.
A. lives B. lived C. have lived 6. He _____ got three toy cars. A. has B. have C. had
7. I ______ from him for three weeks.
A. haven’t heard B. hadn’t heard C. didn’t hear 8. She said she ______ the city the next month. A. will leave B. would leave C. left 被动语态在八种时态中的表现
1. The tree ______________ (water) every day. 2. The trees _______________ (water) every day. 3. The trees _______________ (water) next week.
He said the trees _______________ (water) the next week.
5. Look! The tree _______________ (water) now. 6. Look! The trees _______________ (water) now.
7. The tree _______________ (water) at eight o’clock
8. The trees _______________ (water) at eight o’clock
9. The tree _______________ (water) for ten minutes. 10. The trees _______________ (water) since ten minutes
11. The tree _______________ (water) fifteen minutes
12. The trees _______________ (water) fifteen minutes
1. She _____ to John’s birthday three days before. A. is invited B. was invited C. invited 2. They _________ to go into the building after they show their ID cards. A. are admitted B. will be admitted C. were admitted 3. The apple tree ______ once a day.
A. are watered B. is watered C. was watered 4. They ______ much food since they came here.
A. have been given B. has been given C. have given 4. The room _____ before we arrived.
A. has been cleaned B. had been cleaned C. was clean
5. The floor _____ twice a day.
A. is swept B. is sweeped C. was swept
6. The bridge ______ by the workers three years ago. A. was built B. were built C. will be built
7. A new factory ____ in the village next year. A. is built B. will be built.
1. There ________ (be) many monkeys in the mountain.
2. There_________(be)a beautiful garden in our school.
3. There _________(be)some water in the glass.
4. There __________(be)some bread on the table.
5. _______(be)Tom ___________(read) a book now?
6. Where ________(be) your friends yesterday?
7. When _________ (do) your father usually _________ (go) to work?
8. How old __________ (be0 you last year?
9. Which dog ________ (be) yours?
10. Ten and two ________ (be) twelve
1. My brother ____ a teacher. He ____ his pupils very much.
A. is, like B. is, likes C. are, likes D. are, like
2. A: How many days ____ there in a week? B: There ____ seven.
A. is, is B. are, are C. is, are D. are, is
3. The boy ____ ill today.
A. are B. is C. be D. am
4. What _____ your father _____?
A. do, like B. is, like C. are, likes D. does, like 5. _____ you go to school by bus?
A. Are B. Is C. Do D. Does 6. When _____ your birthday?
A. are B. is C. do D. does
7. Which ____ bigger, the sun or the moon?
A. are B. is C. be D. × 8. My teacher often _____ shopping on Sundays. A. goes B. gos C. go D. goed 9. Listen! The children_____________.
A. sings B. are singing C. is singing D. is sing 10. Her voice ____ like my mother's.
A. sounds B. sound C. looks D. look 11. It often rains and the crops ____ fast.
A. get B. turn C. grow D. become
12. A: How are you ____ now?
B: Much better, thank you.
A. getting B. feeling C. making D. turning
13. He _____ swimming.
A. don’t likes B. doesn’t likes C. not like D. doesn’t like 14. What ______ they _____ on Saturdays?
A. does, does B. do, do C. do, does D. does, do 15. Yang Ling______do exercise with____.
A. doesn’t, us B. don’t, we C. /, us D. don’t, us 初一助动词练习
一 单选题 1：She ________ to see documentaries（记录片）. A、do want B、 don't want C、doesn't want D、not want 2：
Look at that picture on the wall. __________ you like it? A、Do B、Can C、Could D、Are 3：He ________ like pears.
A、 do B、is C、doesn't D、not
4：—Do you often go to the cinema______ Sunday? —No, we__________.
A、on, don't B、on, aren't C、in, do D、in, don't
5：－Can you see a light on the table? －Yes, ________.
A、I am B、I’m not C、I can D、He isn’t
6：—Does the boy want to be an actor? —________. A、 Yes, he is B、No, he does C、Yes, he does D、No, he isn't
7：_________ he have any apples ? A、Do B、Does C、Is D、Are 8：
She ______ want to be a policewoman, because she thinks it’s kind of dangerous.
A、 isn’t B、aren’t C、don’t D、doesn’t 9：Why＿＿＿＿he have brown hair? A、 do B、does C、is D、has
10：What time__________ he get home every day? A、is B、does C、do D、am
11：What________ you see in the picture? A、is B、are C、can D、have 12：Jack_______ like flying kites______ throwing a frisby. A、don't, or B、doesn't, and C、 don't, and D、doesn't, or 13：A：________ Jim ________ a ball? B：No, he________.
A、Do, have, don't B、Does, has, doesn't C、Is, have, isn't D、Does, have, doesn't
14：I ________ have a watch.
A、 am not B、does C、don't D、doesn't
15：＿＿＿＿you＿＿＿＿a good time on your vacation?
A、Did; have B、Did; had C、Were; have D、Were; had
Simon likes _____ football, but he doesn’t _____ it well. A、 play, plays B、to play, plays C、plays, playing D、playing, play
17：She＿＿＿＿have to wash the dishes now. A、don't B、not C、doesn't D、can't 18：
—________Colin ________ Chinese history? —Yes, he does. A、Do; like B、Does; likes C、Do; likes D、Does; like 19：Li Lei ______ lunch at home.
A、hasn’t B、haven’t C、don’t have D、doesn’t have 20：－Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday, Dick? －John＿＿＿. A、cleaned B、does C、did D、is
21：__________ you usually come to school by bike? A、Don't B、Doesn't C、Aren't D、Isn't 22：－Where______lions come from? －I think they come from Africa. A、are B、is C、does D、do 23：__________ we have any eggs?
A、Aren't B、Don't C、Can't D、Mustn't
表示年,月,日时刻等 at “prep. 在（表示存在或出现的地点、场所、位置、空间）；以（某种价格、速度等）；向；因为；朝；忙于”, in“prep. 按照（表示方式）；从事于；在…之内adv. 进入；当选；（服装等）时髦；在屋里adj. 在里面的；时髦的n. 执政者；门路；知情者n. (In)人名；(中)演(广东话·威妥玛)；(柬)殷(用于名字第一节)， 因；(日)寅 (名)[ 过去式 inned 过去分词 inned 现在分词 inning ]” on“adv. 向前地；作用中，行动中；继续着prep. 向，朝……；关于；在……之上；在……时候adj. 开着的；发生着的，正在进行中n. (On)人名；(日)温(姓、名)；(缅、柬、印)翁” 表示时间的前后用
before“prep. 在…之前，先于adv. 以前；在前conj. 在…以前；在…之前”,
after” adv. 后来，以后prep. 在……之后conj. 在……之后adj. 以后的”
By” prep. 通过；被；依据；经由；在附近；在……之前adv. 通过；经过；附近；[互联网] 白俄罗斯的国家代码顶级域名”,
Until” 直到;多用于否定句中;消息” Till” n. [地理][水文] 冰碛；放钱的抽屉；备用现金prep. 直到conj. 直到...为止vt. 耕种；犁vi. 耕种；耕耘n. (Till)人名；(法)蒂伊；(匈、德、捷)蒂尔；(英)蒂尔(女子教名Matilda的昵称)”
表示期间等用 for,during,through 表示时间的起点等用from,since 表示时间的经过等用in,within 表示年,月,日时刻等用at,in,on at 用于表示时刻,时间的某一点 at noon at night at present at 8 o'clock We usually have lunch at 12. on 用于某天,某天的上,下午(指具体某一天时,一律用on) 返回 on Monday on Tuesday morning on June 12th on a cold night on the night of May 1st We didn't listen to the lecture on Friday afternoon. in 用于表示周,月,季节,年,泛指的上午,下午,晚上 in the week in May in spring in 1992 in the morning in the afternoon 返回 in the night People go skating in winter. 表示时间的前后用before,after before 在...之前 Wash your hands before dinner. He will call me before he leaves here. after 在...之后 Let's sing some songs after school. Please close the door after you leave the room. 表示期限等用by,untill,till by 在...之前;截至... How many English books had you read by the end of last year. untill(till) 直到...为止 (untill 与 till 可通用) We didn't begin to watch TV untill (till) nine o'clock. I'll wait for him untill he comes here. 表示期间等用
for,during,through for 达...之久 返回 He has lived here for 20 years. We will stay in the
city for two days. during 在...期间 They are going to have a good rest during the summer holidays. through 一直...(从开始到结束) They played the cards through the night. 表示时间的起点等用from,since from 从...起(时间) The meeting will be held from eight to ten. The meeting will be held at eight since 自从...以来(表示从以前某时一直到现在仍在继续) I have been sick since yesterday. The doctor has saved a lot of lives since he became a doctor. 表示时间的经过等用in,within 返回 in 在...后(未来时间) in an hour in a week or so He will be back in five hours. They said they would arrive here in a week. within 不超过...的范围 within 3 hours I must finish painting the cat within five minutes. They worked hard. They finished the work within 2 days at last. 表示场所,方向的介词 表示场所的介词:
at,in,on,under,by,near,between. 表示方向的介词: into,out of,along,acros,through,to,from. at,in at 在某地点(表示比较狭窄的场所) 返回 at school at home at No.2 Baker Street at a factory I'll meet him at the Beijing railway station. in 在某地(表示比较宽敞的场所) in Beijing in China in the world in the street She was born in China.
on,under,over,above,below on a.在...上面,有接触面 on the desk There are two maps on the wall. b.在...靠近...的地方 on the right on the river above 在...上方 Our plane flew above the clouds. over 在...正上方,是under的反义词 返回 There is light over Li Ming. A few birds were flying over the sea. under 在...下面;在...之内 under the table under the jacket The dog is under the table. below 在...下方(不一定是正下方) There are a lot of fishes below the surface of the water. near,by near 近的,不远的 near = not far Is there a bus stop near here by 在...旁边,距离比near要近 by the window by me The boy is
standing by the window. between,among,around 返回 between 在两者之间 My teacher is sitting between Tom and Mike. What's the difference between A and B among 在三者或更多的之中 There is a beautiful house among the trees. He is very popular among the students. around 环绕,在...周围,在...四周 We sat around the table. They walked around the street. in front of,behind in front of 在...的前面;在...的前部 The is a tree in front of the house. There is a big desk for the teacher in front of the classroom. behind 在...后面 是 in front of的反义词 返回 There is a tree behind the house. in,into,out of in 在...之内,用于表示静止的位置 The students are in the classroom. into 进入 The students run into the classroom. He jumped into the water. out of 和into一样,也表示有一定的运动方向 The students rushed out of the room. along,across,through along 沿着 I was walking along the river when it began to rain. across 横过 返回 I often swim across the river through 贯穿,通过 The river was through the city. to,for,from to 到达...地点(目的地)或方向 He came to Japan in 1980. Tom has gone to school. for 表示目的地,"向..." I'll leave for America next week. leave for 动身去... start for 出发去... from 从...地点起... It's about ten minutes' walk from here to the cinema. How far is it from our school to the hospital 其他介词 表示手段和材料的介词用with,in,by with a. 和...在一起 Will you please go with me b. 具有,带有 He was a handsome boy with large bright eyes. c. 用某工具或方法 返回 Li Li cut her hand with a knife. I see with my eyes. He wrote the letter with a new pen. in 表示用什么材料(例如用墨水,铅笔)等,或用什么语言,或者表示衣着,声调特点时,不用with,而用in She
wrote a letter in black ink. Don't write it in pencil but in ink. by 通过...方法,手段 He goes to school by bicycle. of, from of (属于)...的;表示...的数量或者种类 This is a map of China. Will you please give me a cup of tea from 来自(某地,某人);以...起始(时间或地点) 返回 I'm from Nanjing. I have got a letter from my friend. without,like,as without 没有,是with的反义词 Men can't live without air and water. I can't read the book without using a dictionary. Please give me a cup of coffee without milk. Please give me a cup of coffer with milk. like 象...一样 Nancy is just like her mother. as 作为 He is famous as a scientist here. against,about 返回 against 反对;靠着 He is against the plan. The teacher is standing against the blackboard. about a. 关于;各处;身旁 Tell me something about your life. He looked about himself. I have no money about(= with) me. b. 询问某人某物的情况或提出建议 What about your sister How about going to the park
1) 简单介词:about, across, after, against, among, around, at, before, behind, below,
beside, but, by, down, during, for, from, in, of, on, over, near, since, to, under, up, with等等。 2)合成介词:inside, into, outside, throughout, upon, without, within 3)短语介词:according to, along with, apart from, because of, in front of, in spite of, instead of, owing to, up to 4)分词介词:considering, reguarding, including, concerning 从意思上考虑，介词可分为下面三类: 1)引导时间短语的介词: at, on, in, during, before, after, over, from, following, by, till, until, towards, for, throughout, upon, since 2) 引导地点状语的介词: in, at, across, to, down, under, near, between, over, from, into, through, onto, off, outside, out of, inside, within, beside, behind, below, among, beyond, against, around, before, up, ahead of, via, in front of, under, along, past, opposite, above, next to 3) 引导其他短语的介词: by, with, about, except, like, of, according to, instead of, without, in, due to, because of, along with, as for, in spite of, on account of ，owing to, against, apart from, for, failing, plus, including
3) 最常用的助动词有：be, have, do, shall, will, should, would 他们表示时态，语态，
有be about to, be due to, be going to, be likely to, be meant to, be obliged to, be supposed to, be willing to, have to, seem to, be unable to, be unwilling to等。......情态助动词
7) 情态助动词 1.情态助动词包括will(would), shall(should), can(could), may(might),
must, need, dare, ought to, used to, had better后接原形不定词。 2.情态助动词不受
主语的人称和数的限制。 3.两个情态助动词不能连用。 中文:他将能够及时完成此事。 (误)He will can finish it i......
9) 基本助动词 基本助动词只有三个：be, do, have, 他们没有词汇意义，只有语法作
用，如协助构成进行体，完成体，被动态，否定句，疑问句等。 例如 He is giving a lecture. 他在作报告He has made a plan. 他已经订了计划The small animals are kept in the cages. 小动物都关在笼子里。
11) a. 表示时态，例如：
12) He is singing. 他在唱歌。
13) He has got married. 他已结婚。
14) b. 表示语态，例如：
15) He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
16) c. 构成疑问句，例如：
17) Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗？
18) Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗？
19) d. 与否定副词not合用，构成否定句，例如：
20) I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。
21) e. 加强语气，例如：
22) Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。
23) He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。
24) 3） 最常用的助动词有：be, have, do, shall, will, should, would
31) 1）have +过去分词，构成完成时态，例：
32) He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
33) By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.
35) 2）have + been +现在分词，构成完成进行时（现在完成时），例：
36) I have been studying English for ten years.
38) 3）have+been +过去分词，构成完成时态的被动语态，例：
39) English has been taught in China for many years.
43) 肯定式 否定式 疑问式
44) 现在时 have（got）或have haven't（got）或don't have have I（got）？或
do you have？
45) 过去时 had hadn't（got)或didn't have had you（got)?或did you have？
47) — Do you have earthquakes in your country？ 你们国家地震吗？
48) — Yes,but we don't have them very often. 有，但不经常。
49) have意指take（a meal）（吃），give（a party）（举行）等。
50) We have lunch at one. 我们1点钟吃饭。
51) They are having a party tomorrow. 他们明天举行聚会。
52) I hope you'll have a good holiday. 我希望你愉快地度过假期。
57) 1） 构成一般疑问句，例如：
58) Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗？
59) Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗？
60) 2） do + not 构成否定句，例如：
61) I do not want to be criticized. 我不想挨批评。
62) He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。
63) In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去，好
64) 3) 构成否定祈使句，例如：
65) Don't go there. 不要去那里。
66) Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。
67) 说明： 构成否定祈使句只用do，。
68) 4） 放在动词原形前，加强该动词的语气，例如：
69) Do come to my birthday party please. 请一定来参加我的生日宴会。
70) I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。
71) I do miss you. 我确实想你。我真想你了！
72) 5） 用于倒装句，例如：
73) Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。
74) Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English.
76) 说明： 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。
77) 6） 用作代替动词，例如：
78) ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗？
79) ---- Yes, I do. --是的，喜欢。（do用作代动词，代替like Beijing.）
80) He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he?
86) 否定形式：may not/mayn't，might not/mightn't
87) 疑问式：may I？might I？等
88) 否定疑问式：may I not？/mayn't I?等
89) 表示许可的may的其他形式可用allow，be allowed的相应形式代替。
94) 否定式：can not/can't,could not/could't
95) 疑问式：can I？could I？等
96) 否定疑问式：can I not？/can't I？could I not？/couldn't I？等
97) 表示许可的can的其他形式可用于allow，be allowde的相应形式代替。
104) shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时，例如： I shall study harder at English. 我将更加努力地学习英语。 He will go to Shanghai. 他要去上海。 说明： 在过去的语法中，语法学家说shall用于第一人称，will 只用于第二、第三人
108) He shall come. 他必须来。（shall有命令的意味。） He will come. 他要来。（will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。） shall在疑问句中,用于第一,第三人称,征求对方意愿 shall I turn on the light?
113) 要开灯吗?( 我把灯打开好吗?) shall he come to see you? 他要不要来看你 (比较: will he come to see you? 他会不会来看你) shall 用在陈述句, 与第二第三人称连用, 变为情态动词 表示允诺,命令,警告,和
115) should,would的用法 1）should无词义，只是shall的过去形式，与动词原形构成过去将来时，只用
120) I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话，问他我下周干什么。 比较： "What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么？"我问道。（可以说，shall变成直接引语时，变成了
121) 2） would也无词义，是will的过去形式，与动词原形构成过去将来时，用于
129) He said he would come. 他说他要来。 比较： "I will go," he said. 他说："我要去那儿。" 变成间接引语，就成了： He said he would come. 原来的will变成would，go变成了come.。过去式从原来的go变为came。 有关汉语助动词的用法 参见：《南京师范大学青年学者文丛：中古汉语助动词研究》《先秦汉语助动
1、助动词be（am, is, are, was, were, being, been）的用法
Who is playing the violin?谁在拉小提琴？
She was reading a book then.那时她正在读书。
He was asked to do the work.有人要他干这件工作。
You are invited to attend the meetintg.有人邀请你参加会议。
Who are we to meet?我们要见谁呀？
I'm to have supper with John this afternoon.今天下午我要与约翰一起吃晚饭。 ②表示指示、命令，否定式表禁止。
You are to see the headmaster today.今天你必须去见校长。
You are not to enter the room without permission.未经允许你不能进入房间。 ③表示义务、责任等，同should。
You are to be back before 5.你得在5点钟以前回来。
What is to be done?该干什么。
Such books are to be found in any library.这种书任何图书馆都有。
Not a sound was to be heard.一点声响也没有。
They say good-bye, little knowing that they were never to meet again.他们告别了，没想到再也不能相见了。
He was to regret the decision.他有一天会后悔做出这一决定的。
Where am I to go? 我该向何处去？
What am I to do? 我该怎么办？
2、助动词have(has, had, having)的用法
He has been a doctor for 10 years.他当医生十年了。
This is the place I have been longing to visit.这就是我一直渴望参观的地方。
We've missed the train. We'll have to wait for another one.我们己经误了火车，我们只能等下一列。
-Do we have to start work?我们得立刻工作吗？
-No. We don't have to.不，不必了。
3、do(does, did) 的用法
How did you know about it?你是怎样知道这件事的。
He does not smoke. 他不抽烟。
He did tell that.他的确告诉了此事。
Do come and see us.一定来看我们。
-You like popular music, don't you?你喜欢流行音乐，是吧？
-Yes , I do.是的，我喜欢。
He speaks French as fluently as she does.他讲法语和她讲的一样流利。
Never did he pay attention to my words.他从不注意我的话。
Only then did I understand the importance of English.只是那时，我才了解到英语的重要性。
Don't be so careless.不要那么粗心。
Do not hesitate to come for help.只管来求助。
I shall think it over.我要好好考虑一下。
When shall I see you again?我何时再见到你？
I rang up to tell her that I should leave for London. 我打电话告诉她我要去伦敦。
（2）will用于第二、第三人称的将来时态中，在现代英语中可以用于所有人称 He will be 30 next month. 他下月将是30岁。
You will have an English test tomorrow.明天你有英语小测验。
He wanted to know when you would finish the writing.他想知道你何时完成写作。
1、协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词（Auxiliary Verb）。被协助的动词称作主要动词（Main Verb）。助动词自身没有词义，不可单独使用，
例如：He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。（doesn't 是助动词，无词义；like 是主要动词，有词义）
He is singing. 他在唱歌。
He has got married. 他已结婚。
He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗？
Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗？
（4） 与否定副词not 合用，构成否定句，例如：
I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。
Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。 He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。
3、最常用的助动词有：be, have, do, shall, will, should, would
助动词就是协助主要动词构成谓语的动词。助动词本身没有词义，不可单独作谓语，只能和别的动词一起构成谓语，表示时态、语态、语气等，或表示疑问或否定。常用的助动词有be, do, does, did, have, has, shall, will, would等。如：
He doesn’t like English. 他不喜欢英语。(doesn’t是助动词，本身无词义，只是协助主要动作like表示否定含义)
He is singing. 他在唱歌。
He has arrived. 他已经到了。
He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗？
I don’t like him. 我不喜欢他。
I do love you. 我真的喜欢你。
Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。
He works hard than you do. 他比你工作努力些。(do代替work)