1( All the furniture in the building _______ to the company not to his own. A. is belonged B belongs C. belong D are belonged
2. When I was at college I _______ three foreign languages, but I _______ all except a few words of each.
A. spoke, had forgotten B spoke, have forgotten C had spoken, had forgotten D had spoken, have forgotten
3. -----We would have walked to the station. It was so near.
----- Yes, a taxi _______ at all necessary.
A wasn’t B hadn’t been C wouldn’t be D won’t be
4. I don’t really work here. I _______ until the new secretary arrives.
A just help out B have just helped out C am just helping out D will just help out 5. He _______ his leg when he _______ in a football match.
A broke, played B was breaking, was playing C broke, was playing D was breaking, played 6. The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she _______. A will arrive B arrives C is going to arrive D is arriving
7. As she _______ newspaper, Granny _______ asleep.
A read, was falling B was reading, fell C was reading , was falling D read, fall 8. ---Do you like the material?
---Yes, it _______ very soft.
A is feeling B felt C feels D is felt
9. ---Come on in, Tom. I want to show you something.
--- Oh, how nice of you! I _______ you _______ to bring me a gift. A never think, are going B never thought, were going C didn’t think , were going
D hadn’t thought , were going
10. ----You’ve agreed to go, so why aren’t you getting ready?
----But I _______ that you _______ us to start at once.
A don’t realize, want B don’t realize, wanted C haven’t realized, want D didn’t realize, wanted
11. The house is dirty. We _______it for weeks.
A didn’t clean B hadn’t cleaned C don’t clean D haven’t cleaned
12. -----_______ the sports meet might be put off.
---- Yes, it all depends on the weather.
A I’ve been told B I’ve told C I’m told D I told
13. ---- I’m sorry to keep you waiting.
----Oh, not at all. I _______ here only a few minutes. A have been B had been C was D will be
14. You don’t need to describe her. I _______ her several times.
A. had met B have met C met D meet
15. The cost of living _______ by ten percent before the government took any action.
A was going B went up C had gone up D has gone up
16. By the time new pupil _______ enough courage to raise his hand , the bell for the end of the
A had gathered ; was already ringing B was gathering ; had already rung C gathered ; already rang D would gather ; would already have rung 17. -----Did you go to Beijing for vacation ?
-----I _______ to go , but I got sick at the last minute. A was planning B have planned C had been planning D have been planning 18. ------When will they leave ?
------They _______ very soon .
A do leave B are leaving C have left D leave
19. ------Was he studying for an exam ?
------Yes , he's _______ it next week.
A doing B to take C making D to giv
20. ------Are there going to be many people at your party today ? ------We hope that _______.
A there will be B there are going C there are D there going to be 21. She must have arrived there last night , _______ she ? A didn't B haven't C needn't D mustn't
22. _______ the letter , I ran out of the room to the post office. A Since I have finished writing B No sooner than I had finished writing
C As soon as I finished writing D After I have finished
23. Twelve inches _______ one foot.
A will make B is making C makes D make
24. I _______ going to London next month.
A have thought of B shall think of C am thinking of D will think of 25. He _______ English for six years by the time he takes his examination. A has studied B studied C will have been studying D had been studying 26. By this time next year he _______ from this college.
A is graduating B will have graduated C should be graduation D will be graduation 27. _______ the school when the bell rang.
A I hardly had reached B Hardly had I reached C I hardly reached D Hardly did I reach 28. He promised us that he _______ early but he _______yet.
A would be; hasn't arrived B is ; hasn't been arriving C should be ; isn't arriving D will be ; hadn't arrived
29. The teacher told the pupils that the earth _______ round.
A is B would C was D were
30. The moment they met , they knew that _______ .
A they would have friendliness B they would be friends
C friendship they would have D friendship would happen
31. We _______ the problem for quite some time , but we _______ any conclusion yet. A had discussed ; haven't reached B discussed ; haven't reached C have discussed ; haven't been reaching D have been discussing ,haven't reached 32. It wasn't until two o'clock that I _______ to sleep.
A would go B went C was going D had gone
33. ------Where _______ my book ? I can't see it anywhere.
------ I _______ it on this table . But now it's gone .
A were you putting ; have put B had you put ; was putting
C have you put ; put D did you put ; have put
34. Perhaps it will be a long time _______ from abroad.
A that Tom comes back B before Tom comes back
C when Tom will come back D when Tom comes back
35. If the film _______ is our school , we'll go and see it . A is to be shown B was shown C is shown D will be shown 36. -----How _______ on with your English these days . -----Not bad.
A have you been getting B are you getting C did you get D have you got 37. -----What _______ when I phoned you this morning? ------I _______ my homework and was starting to take a boat. A are you doing , have just finished B were you doing , had just finished C had you done , just finished D did you do , just finished 38. I _______ such an interesting book before.
A was never reading B will never read C had never read D have never read 39. _______ that the earth was the centre of the universe. A People were believing B It was once believed
C People were once believed D People were said
40. Two of the boys _______ while playing football.
A had been hurt B got hurt C were hurting D hurt
41. Prices _______ sharply in the past few years.
A have raised B have been raised C have been risen D have risen 42. The number of the students in our school _______ 1200. A is added up to B has been added up to C adds up to D have added up to 43. What he said at the meeting _______ true .
A was proved B proved C is proved D proves
44. How long do you think the meeting ______
A is lasting B is lasted C will last D lasts
45. The May 4th movement ______ in 1919.
A had taken place B was taking place C was taken place D took place 46. These kinds of shoes ______ well.
A were not sold B won't be sold C are not sold D don't sell 47. On returning home , I found I ______ umbrella in the office.
A had left B have left C left D would leave
48. Once you ______ a promise , you must carry it out. A have made B had made C made D is making
49. She ______ Charles for a year.
A has been married to B has got married to C married with D married 50. The singer lived in California until he ______ to university. A had sent B was sending C had been sent D was sent
1------10: B B A C C ; B B C B D
11----20: D A A B C ; A D C B B
21----30: A C C C C ; B B A A B
31----40: D B C B C ; B B D B B
41----50: C D B C D ; D A A A D
By now, I have collected all the data that I need .到现在为止，我已收集到了我所需的全部资料。
She has read 150 pages today .她今天已看了150页。
We haven't met for many years .我们已多年没见了。
They have developed a new product .他们研制成功了一种新产品。
Have you had your dinner? 你吃晚饭了吗？
She has been to the United States. 她已去美国了。
You have grown much taller.你长高了许多。
It has been five years since he joined the army .他参军五年了。
They have learned English for eight years .他们已学了八年的英语了。
So far we've only discussed the first five chapters.至今我们还只讨论了前五章。 几点注意
He speaks English .（一般现在时，说明动作发生的经常性。）
He spoke English when he was in New Zealand .（一般过去时，说明动作发生的时间。）
He is speaking English.（现在进行时，说明动作正在进行。）
He has spoken English for three years since he came to the USA.（现在完成时，这里说明动作的总和。）
He has been speaking English since he came to the USA. （现在完成进行时，强调动作的连续性。）
例如：I will not play tennis if it rains tomorrow.
I would not play tennis if it rained the next day.
3) 有些动词表示无法持续的动作，它们一般不宜用于进行时态中。这类动词常见的有：be , believe , consist , find , forget , hate , have , hope , hear , know , like , love , notice , prefer , remember , see , seem , smell , suggest , taste , understand , want , wish , sit down , stand up 等等。
Tom is being a good boy today .汤姆今天很乖。
He is being childish .他这样做是耍孩子气。
You are not being modest .你这样说不太谦虚。
B. 在以when提问的特殊疑问中不能用现在完成时。另外，ago不能用于现在完成时的句子里，因为它表示从现在算起的以前某个时间，属于表示具体过去时间的状语。但是可以用before 来表示
He has joined the army for five years. （错误）
It has been five years since he joined the army.（正确）
现在完成时基本结构: 由 have 加动词的过去分词构成，主语是第三人称单数时，要将 have 改为 has。
I have seen the film already. 我已经看过那部电影了。(现在我知道电影的内容了。) Have you seen my bag? 你看到我的手提包了吗? (你知道它在哪里? ) She has been a dancer for ten years. 她已当了十年的舞蹈演员了。
We’ve planted thousands of trees in the past few years. 过去几年我们种了成千上万棵树。
1、Both his parents look sad .Maybe they ______what's happened to him . Ａ. knew Ｂ. have known Ｃ. must know Ｄ.will know
2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ?
Ａ. already Ｂ.never Ｃ.ever Ｄ. still
3、Have you met Mr Li ______？
Ａ. just Ｂ. ago Ｃ.before Ｄ. a moment ago
4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year
Ａ. is writing Ｂ.was writing Ｃ.wrote Ｄ.has written
5、-Our country ______ a lot so far .
-Yes . I hope it will be even ______ .
Ａ. has changed ; well Ｂ. changed ; good
Ｃ. has changed ; better Ｄ. changed ; better
6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .
Ａ. was ; studying Ｂ. will ; study
Ｃ. has ; studied Ｄ. are ; studying
7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .
Ａ. know Ｂ. had known Ｃ. have known Ｄ. knew
8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .
Ａ. will see Ｂ. have seen Ｃ. saw Ｄ.see 9、-These farmers have been to the United States . -Really ? When _____ there ? Ａ. will they go Ｂ. did they go Ｃ. do they go Ｄ. have they gone 10、-______ you ___ your homework yet ? -Yes . I _____ it a moment ago . Ａ. Did ; do ; finished Ｂ. Have ; done ; finished Ｃ. Have ; done ; have finished Ｄ. will ; do ; finish 11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 . Ａ. joined Ｂ. has joined Ｃ. was in Ｄ. has been in 12、-Do you know him well ? - Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . Ａ. were Ｂ. have been Ｃ. have become Ｄ. have made 13、-How long have you ____ here ? -About two months . Ａ. been Ｂ. gone Ｃ. come Ｄ. arrived 14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . Ａ. has begun Ｂ. had begun Ｃ. has been onＤ. began 15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army . Ａ. is Ｂ. has Ｃ. will Ｄ. was 16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library . Ａ.has gone Ｂ. went Ｃ.will go Ｄ. has been 17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . Ａ. have been in Ｂ. have been to Ｃ. have gone to Ｄ. have been 18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ? A. so they B. don't they C. have they D. haven't they 19、has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20、 His uncle for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university 二、句型转换 3、The old man _________ last year. He for a year. (die) （动词填空） 4、This factory opened twenty years ago.(同义句转换) This factory ________ for twenty years. 5、Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao ________ _______ ________ ________ an hour ago. 6、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .（同义句） Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ . 7、The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换) _______ two years ________ the Green family moved to Fra nce.
8、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一个句子)
break → be broken get up → be up
marry → be married become → be lose → be lost
①延续性动词：表示的动作是能延续的动作，这种动作可以延续下去或产生持久的影响。如：learn work stand lie know walk keep have wait watch sing read sleep live ②终止性动词：也叫非延续性动词，瞬间动词，一次性动词。表示的动作不能延续，即动作发生后立即结束，产生某种结果。在有了某种结果后，动作就不能再继续下去。
如：leave ,start, set out ,arrive ,reach ,get to, begin, stop, shut, turn off, marry ,put ,put on, get up, wake, fall, join ,meet, receive, finish, end, complete ,become, come, go, die, open, close, break, give, jump ,buy, borrow
He has died for three days. （错，终止性动词die 不能和一段时间for three days连用）
1、Both his parents look sad. Maybe they _________what's happened to him .
A. knew B. have known C.must know D.will know
2、He has _______ been to Shanghai, has he ?
A. already B. never C.ever D. still
3、Have you met Mr. Li ______？
A. just B. ago C. before D. a moment ago
4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .
A. is writing B. was writing C. wrote D. has written
5、—Our country ______ a lot so far .
—Yes .I hope it will be even ______ .
A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good
C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better
6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .
A. was ; studying B. will ; study
C. has ; studied D. are ; studying
7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl.
A. know B. had known C. have known D.knew
8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .
A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see
9、—These farmers have been to the United States.
—Really ? When _____ there ?
A. will they go B. did they go
C.do they go D. have they gone
10、—______ you ___ your homework yet ?
—Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .
A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished
C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish
一．过去完成时结构： had+ 过去分词 。
①过去某一时刻或某一动作之前就已经发生的动作或存在的状态：即过去的过去 e.g. 当我到车站的时候，火车已经离开了。
1．He asked me ____ during the summer holidays.
A. where I had been B. where I had gone C. where had I been D. where had I gone
2. What ____ Jane ____ by the time he was sever?
A. did, do B. has, done C did, did. D. had,done
3. I ______ 900 English words by the time I was ten。
A. learned B. was learning C. had learned D. learnt
4. She _____lived here for ______ years.
A. had, a few B. has, several C. had, a lot of D. has, a great deal of
5. By the time my parents reached home yesterday, I ____ the dinner already.
A had cooked B. cooked C. have cooked D. was cooked
6. She said she __________ the principle already
A .has seen B. saw C. will see D. had seen
7. She said her family _______ themselves ______ the army during the war. 6
A. has hidden, from B. had hidden, from C. has hidden, with D. had hidden, with
8. By the time he was ten years old, he ________.
A. has completed university B. has completed the university
C. had completed an university D. had completed university
9. She had written a number of books _____ the end of last year.
A. for B. in C. by D. at
10. He _____ to play ____ before he was 11 years old.
A had learned, piano B. had learned, the piano
C. has learned, the piano D. learns ,piano.
e.g. Those cats have been screaming for hours. 那些猫叫了半天了。
二、现在完成进行时的结构: have / has been + 现在分词
e.g. I have been waiting for an hour and a half. 我一直等了一个半小时了。
e.g. The children have been having a lot of fun. 孩子们一直玩得很开心。
e.g. She is very tired. She’s been working all morning. 她很累。她干了一早晨了。
e.g. We’ve all along been making mistakes like this. 我们一直犯这样的错误。
现在完成进行时所用的时间状语：all day / month; this month / week / year; these days; recently / lately; in the past few + 时间段; since +时间点; for + 时间段，等等。 e.g. He has been working all day. 他整天都在工作。
They have been building the bridge for two month. 两个月来他们一直在修桥。 He has been sleeping for ten hours. 他已经睡了十个小时了。
The two parties have been trying to unite since the New Year.
He has changed his idea. 他改变了想法。
We have been studying here for two years. 我们在这儿已经学习了两年了。 在许多情况下，现在完成时表示动作已经完成，而现在完成进行时却并非如此。如：
He has cleaned the window. 他把窗户擦干净了。(动作已完成)
He has been cleaning the window. 他一直在擦窗户。(动作不一定完成)
The war has lasted for a long time. 这场战争持续了很长时间。
5. 在表达一个从过去开始而现在仍在继续或刚刚结束的动作时，某些动词既可以用现在完成时，也可以用现在完成进行时，如expect, hope, learn, lie, live, look, rain, sleep, sit, snow, stand, stay, study, teach, wait, want, work等。如：
正：How long have yon learnt English?
正：How long have you been learning English?
正：He has slept for ten hours.
正：He has been sleeping for ten hours.
1. — I’m sure Andrew will win the first prize in the final.
— I think so. He ________ for it for months.
A. is preparing B. was preparing C. had been preparing D. has been preparing
2. By the time he realizes he ____ into a trap, it’
ll be too late for him to do anything about it.
A. walks B. walked C. has walked D. had walked
3. So far this year we _______ a fall in house prices by between 5 and 10 percent.
A. saw B. see C. had seen D. have seen
4. Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she_____ English
for a year.
A. studies B. studied C. is studying D. has been studying
5. Danny _________ hard for long to realize his dream and now he is popular.
A. works B. is working C. has worked D. had worked
6. —I have got a headache.
—No wonder. You_________ in front of that computer too long.
A. work B. are working C. have been working D. worked
7. The unemployment rate in this district_______ from 6% to 5% in the past two years.
A. has fallen B. had fallen C. is falling D. was falling
8. Now that she is out of job, Lucy ___ going back to school，but she hasn’ 9
t decided yet.
A. had considered B. has been considering C. considered D. is going to consider
9. —______ you ______ him around the museum yet? (2007江苏) —
Yes. We had a great time there.
A. Have shown B. Do show C. Had; shown D. Did; show
10. —Hi, Tracy，you look pale.
—I am tired. I _______ the living room all day.
A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted
1．His father ______ the Party since 1978.
A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in
2. —Do you know him well ?
— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .
A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made
3—How long have you ____ here ?
—About two months .
A. been B. gone C.
come D. arrived
4. Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .
has begun B. had begun
has been on D. began
5. It _____ ten years since he left the army .
A. is B. has C.
will D. was
6. What _______ Annie ____ by the time he was ten?
A. did, do B. did, did C. has, done D. had done 7 .He ___ in the factory for three years before he joined the Army.
A. has worked B. works C. had worked D. will work
8. By the end of last week, they ____ the bridge.
A. has completed B. completed C. will complete D. had completed
9. Ben hates playing _____ violin, but he likes playing ____ football.
A. a…the B. the… the C. / …the D. the…/
10. By the time he was 4, he ______ a lot of German words.
A. had learned B. has learned C. learned D. learns
1. You know, I ____________ (look) for a job for three months, and this is my first formal interview.
2. My sister _______________ (stay) in Beijing for three months last year.
3. The little boy is dirty all over because he ______________ (play) in the mud all the morning.
4. I ______________ (wonder) if you were free this afternoon.
5. Here he is! We ___________ (wait) anxiously for him since last night.
6. We _____________ (paint) the house before we ______________ (move) in.
7. That rich old man _____________ (make) a will before he _____________ (die).
8. They _____________ (study) the map of the country before they ________ (leave).
9. The robbers _____________ (run away ) before the policemen_______ (arrive).
10. I __________ (turn off) all the lights before I ____________ (go) to bed.
4. Jack didn’t go to the cinema （对划线部分提问） ______________________________________________________________________________.
过去完成时： 1-5：ADCAA 6-10：DBDCB
现在完成进行时：1-5 DCDDC 6-10 CABA C
1. have been looking 2. stayed 3. has been pl aying/ has played
4. wondered 5. have been waiting 6. had painted... moved
7. had made ... died
8. had studied…left 9. had run away. Arrived 10. had turned off …went
1.How long 2. died, has been dead 3.has been open
4. Why didn't Jack go to the cinema?
5.. How long had you/we had the toys before you/we gave them to the child? 13
现在完成时 (The Present Perfect Tense)
I. Structure：主语+have/has+过去分词(done) -- past participle
指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻，一直延续到现在，或可能还要继续下去。这里的动词要用持续性动词。常与for, since连用，或用于How long...（多久）句型中，表示持续的时间。 for five years. 我叔叔在这个工厂工作已经五年了。 since 2002. 自从2002年Mr. Black 一直住在中国。 since he came to our school.自从他来到我们学校，他学习就非常努力。 How long你来这里多久了？
错误：I have bought the book for three months.
正确：I have had the book for three months.
错误：How long has your brother joined the army?
正确：How long has your brother been in the army/been a soldier?
✓ Principel: 将瞬间动词改成其他可表示延续状态的词。（首选：prep./adj./adv.；其次：
● 瞬间动词 → be +
leave → be away (from)
begin/start → be on
finish/end → be over
get up → be up
get to/ arrive/reach → be (in/at)
come/become/go → be here/there
fall asleep → be asleep
fall ill → be ill
join the army → be in the army/be a soldier in the army
have/has gone to → have been in
● 瞬间动词 →be + 表状态
open → be open
close → be closed
die → be dead
marry --- be married
● 瞬间动词 → be 表状态
become → be
● 瞬间动词 → 其他同义可延续性动词 表状态
borrow /buy → keep/have
catch a cold → have a cold
get to know → know
put on → wear
for + 一段时间 → (for 2 years/ for a long time)
since + 时间点 → (since last year/ since 5 days ago)
since + 从句（一般过去式）→(since he came here)
● * 瞬间动词的否定结果表示某动作不发生的状态是可以延续的。
E.g.: I have not written to him since January.
We haven’t met each other for several years.
● ** 若since引导的状语从句的谓语动词是持续性动词或表示状态的动词的过去时
E.g.: I haven’t heard any noise since I slept. 我醒后还未听到任何声音。
✧ (sleep 为持续性动词，sleep的动作结束时，即“醒来”。)
John is now with his parents in New York. it is already three years since he was a teacher. 约翰现在和父母一起住在纽约，他不当教师已经三年了。
I have not heard from him since I lived in Shanghai. 自从我离开上海，就再也没有收到他的信。
● ** 若since引导的状语从句的谓语为持续性动词的现在完成时，则表示动作和状态延续到现在（说话时刻），其表示的时间的起点应从动作发生之时算起。（若since从句中是可延续动词的完成时形式，则保持动词的原意不变。）
E.g.: I haven’t heard from him since he has lived there。自从他（开始）住在那儿起，我就一直没收到他的来信。
✧ （这里has lived表示动作的持续性，时间的起点应从：“开始居住”时算起。）
Since we have owned a car, we have gone camping every year。自从我们自己有了汽车，我们每年都去野营。
● * since引导的从句绝对不能用否定式的谓语动词来表示否定意义。
错误：It is a long time since he didn’t study English.
正确：It’s a long time since he studied English.
错误：It’s two months since you didn’t come to see me.
正确：You haven’t come to see me for two months. (这里的come表示的是某一动作的目的或结果。)
①. 表示从过去某时刻到现在，并包括现在在内的一段时间 的状语：
recently, lately, up to now, so far, in the past few months , today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, up to these few days/weeks/months/years, etc...
Compare: this morning. 早晨我见过Fox太太。（说话时还在上午）
this morning. 今天早晨我见过Fox太太。（说话时间是下午或者晚上）
these days. 这两天我们已经出售了大约100台洗衣机。（瞬间） these days. 我这几天一直在读这本小说。（延续）
already, yet, never, ever, just, before, always, once, twice, sometimes, , etc...
E.g.: 我们已完成了那工作。 他们找到那个失踪的孩子了吗？ 我爸爸刚从北京回来。
They haven’他们还未作出决定。 我从来没有听Bunny说过任何她的坏话。 你去过北京吗？ 已经遇见过那位绅士好多次了。 I have never我之前从来没有见过他。
Compare: before. It is a very good novel. 我以前读过。 这是一本非常好的小说。（before可以单独使用）
I read it 3 years ago. But I can't remember everything about it. 我已经读了三遍了。但是我不能（ago必须与别的表示时间的词连用）
③. 结构It is the first/second/third ... time that ...：
E.g.: It is the first time that I have been here. 这是我第一次来这儿。
It is the fourth time that he has seen the play. 这是他第三次看这个戏。
④. 结构It is/(has been) + 时段 + since + 从句（瞬间动词一般过去式）:
E.g.: It is two years since he joined the club. 他加入俱乐部两年了。
It is about a year since he became a lawyer. 他当律师将近一年了。
E.g.: I saw this film yesterday.（强调动作发生的时间是yesterday 。）
I have seen this film.（强调对现在的影响，电影的内容已经知道了。）
b.) 一般过去时和表示过去的时间状语连用，E.g.:„ago, last week, in 2008, in the past, just now, the day before yesterday, yesterday,then,that day, one day, once, etc...
现在完成时常和recently，ever, never, twice, so far, since, for, in the past/last few years , already（肯定句）, yet（否定，疑问句）, just(刚刚), before（以前）连用。
错误：I have bought this book three days ago.
正确：I have kept this book for three days.
错误：When has he come?
正确：When did he come?
IV. 比较 have/has been to、have/has gone to 和 have been in
● have(has) been to...表示“曾去过某地，已经从那里回来了”，可以和ever、never、twice
● have(has) gone to表示“已经去了某地，在去那里的途中或到达那里还没有回来”。 ● have(has) been in 表示“在某地呆多长时间”，常与表示一段时间的状语连用，如：
since, for, how long 等
E.g.: He went to Shanghai last week. 上周他去了上海。
He has been to Shanghai. 他(曾经)到/去过上海。(但他人现在肯定不是在上海而是回来了)
He has gone to Shanghai. 他已经去上海了。(也许刚动身出发，也许已经到了，也许还在路上，反正他人不在这里)
Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗先生来上海已经有三天了。
e.g. I have lost my wallet.(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.)
2. 结构： have / has + 动词的过去分词
c) 辅音字母加y, 去y为i +ed
4. 否： 在have/ has 后面加not
have gone to 去了某地还没回来
have been to 曾去过
eg. 1)--- Where’s Tom? I can’t find him.
eg. 1) I have lived here three years.
2) I have lived here three years ago.
2）在现在完成时中，如果结构中有“for +一段时间”或“since+ 表示过去的点时间”时，句子动词要用延续性动词
yet 已经（否，疑）， just （刚刚）， ever（曾经）， never（从不），since（自从…..以来）， for +段时间， so far（到目前为止），up to now （直到现在）， lately=recently (近来)，before(以前)等。 注：already, just, ever, never 放在have/ has 的后面，过去分词的前面。其他信号词放在句末。
e.g. Have you had breakfast?
Yes, I have (做过)
When did you have it?
I had it at 8 in the morning. (回答是表示过去的点时间，那么提问也是用过去时)